Alexander Tyshler (July 26, 1898, Melitopol - June 23, 1980, Moscow) - a recognized classic of stage design, famous for his works for Shakespeare’s productions, painter-easel, author of graphic series.
The future artist was the eighth child in the family of a hereditary cabinet maker with the last name “Tyshler” (translated from Yiddish as “joiner”). Alexander Tyshler studied for five years at the Kiev Art School, for two years he attended the workshop of Alexandra Exter. In Kiev, Tyshler made friends and became friends with Ilya Ehrenburg, Osip Mandelstam.
In 1919 he volunteered for the Red Army (performed design work), after demobilization he went to study in Moscow - VHUTEMAS school. He worked with the famous graphic artist Vladimir Favorsky in 1921-1924, but to a greater extent than his studies, the young artist was fascinated by the artistic environment. In Moscow, Tyshler was friends with writers Mayakovsky, Esenin, Bagritsky, artists Falk, Osmerkin, Altman.
In his own work, the artist began with geometric forms and abstractions, but soon found his own style in the field of figurative art. Graduates of VHUTEMAS organized an association of OST - “Society of artists-easel painters”, one of the key figures of which was Tyshler, who joined the movement in 1925.
The main milestones of the career of the master are associated with the theater, he collaborated with such directors as Solomon Mikhoels, Vsevolod Meyerhold. From 1927 he worked in the Belarusian Jewish Theater in Minsk, from the 1930s he developed scenography for the theaters of Moscow and Leningrad, in particular, for the Roma theater of Roma, the Moscow Jewish Theater. Connected with the last episode of Tyshler's rescue of the works of Marc Chagall The artist completed his work as a set designer in 1961 at the Bolshoi Theater with the design of Rodion Shchedrin's opera “Not Only Love.
Alexander Tyshler was married twice: the first spouse - moderator Nastasya Grozdova, the second - art critic Flora Syrkina. The artist had two illegitimate children.
The artist's works were actively exhibited at home and abroad until 1933: after being accused of “formalism”, Tyshler's exhibitions became a rare event, moreover, they were not covered in the press and on TV.
Features of the artist Alexander Tyshler: the master liked to depict structures built on the basis of figures or around the heads of his heroes and heroines, as well as structures composed of small human figures. Tyshler deliberately created a series of works with similar plots and titles - these are mainly lyrical cycles ("Love, or Dream of a Beautiful Lady", "Oceanida", "Carousel", "The Legend of the Centaur Girl"), but also series "Makhnovshchina", "Shooting and pogrom", "Fascism", created as a response to the death of relatives and friends. The artist is considered the forerunner of "unofficial art", nonconformism: having paid tribute to the theme of revolutionary agitation in his youth, the master created original phantasmagoric plots for a long time and did not follow the course of socialist realism.
Famous paintings by Alexander Tyshler: "Balalaika", "Birthday", "Shakespeare's Tales", "Legend of the girl centaur", "Portrait of Anastasia Stepanovna Tyshler".
Author: Olga Potekhina