Sonorous name "Venetsianov", referring to the picturesque UPS Renaissance Venice, Russian artist looks like an alias. The alias is terribly pretentious. But this is only if you don't know that Alexey Gavrilovich Venetsianov was a man of honest and modest, and the number of selfless good deeds - and does the Holy unmercenary. The disproportionate nature of the loud name - not his invention, it was inherited from the Greek ancestors by the name of Procs, who moved to Russia in the first half of the eighteenth century and called there "the Venetian".
Alexey Venetsianov was born on 7 February 1780 in Moscow in the family of wealthy merchants. Anna Lukinichna Venetsianov nee was called Kalashnikov and belonged to an old merchant family. Her husband Gabriel Y. he sold at retail by agricultural products such as flowers and bulbs, berries and plants, Waregem and pickles. And also paintings. No, no, as we say, the art dealer father Venetsianov was not real art dealers of that time had a very different scale: regardless of the cost, they bought paintings at European auctions for the Russian Imperial palaces. And Gabriel Yurievich just sold pictures in gold frames for glasses" Zamoskvoretskaya of self-taught artists.
Folk, grassroots interest in "art" was a new phenomenon in Russian society. It was developed as if in defiance of the Academy of arts, where half a century ago, the pupils, in order not to spoil the eyes were not allowed that to draw peasants - even to look at them. Now fortified themselves took up paint. It is known that the young Alexei Venetsianov painting was engaged by his "uncle" (as it was then called hybrid Valet and tutor) Prochorus.
Russian painting of the time growing up Venetsianov hardly knew, landscape, still life and genre. The main thing was the portrait. It is in the portraits tries himself and Venetsianov. Writing very plausible the portrait of his own mother
he decided to try his luck in the capital and in 1802, taking leave of his parents, went to St. Petersburg.
You had to earn a living. Venetsianov was advertised in the Newspapers: the young artist will draw your portrait in pastels. But the response was not followed. Competition in this area in the capital, flooded with foreign artists and greedy orders wikimachine Academy, was extremely high. Without protection and education, Venetsianov was forced to surrender. He became a draftsman in the post office.
So it took a few years. Write Venetsianov continued on weekends and evenings, feeling that he lacks not only recommendations, but also experience. There intervened a lucky break. Director of the office presented a novice artist recognized Borovikovsky
that settled Venetsianov in the house and took him seriously, taught, took permission to copy in the Hermitage, were acquainted with the right people.
Gradually go orders, life was getting better, but Venetsianov woke up the desire to improve the morals and castigate evils. In 1807 he began to produce "Journal of cartoons". The publication was popular. However, by 1809, when he is already an impressive number of subscribers, Venetsianov learned what censorship and the official in Russia the figure is inviolable. In the latest issue of the Journal of cartoons" was placed caricature print, which is disgusting, bloated fat nobleman glares disdainfully at asylum - wounded soldier and hungry widow. Two of the Ministry of internal Affairs and education, provided in the caricature of a threat to the state. On the personal order of Alexander I, the journal was closed and Venetsianov recommended again to turn to the path of the draftsman.
In the mail he has not returned. Got a job as a surveyor in the Forest Department. And started developing ambitious for a person without special education plan: get official title of artist. In principle, the Charter of the Academy is allowed. For this purpose it was necessary to provide their work to the contest. In 1811 Venetsianov wrote for this purpose "Self-portrait"
. The act strange, not to say daring. Who are you, that will be to the Board of academics interested in your tiny face? And yet luck Veneziano smiled again. The Academy has estimated the weighted composition and sophisticated color, and the disclosure of the nature.
Modesty, honesty, restraint, myopic view of the glasses - so know Venetsianov and we. He did the next job is to write portrait of the inspector of the Academy Golovachevskogo
and got the desired title.
In 1815 Venetsianov all of a sudden who you married, 35-year-old painter has managed to develop a reputation as a staunch bachelor. Martha Popovich Azarev, which he is not a little carried away, was the daughter of wealthy nobles. After the wedding the couple went to stay with her parents in the Tver province. Venetsianov, known before only urban views in the two capitals, was fascinated impassable ancient forests, their buzzing and damp coolness, clarity forest lakes. Peasant life in him, a city resident, was drawn full of inexplicable appeal. He selflessly go into the landlord business, learns, for example, how to establish watering or what is the "chetyrehpolnye plowing" and admits to himself that he would like to stay here forever.
Soon Venetsianov bought the name safonkovo. It is there written his famous masterpieces "The barn"
frankly poeticises what to Venetsianov was considered not worthy image. Strict painful Martha spouse Afanasyevna I will write in Russian costume
. At the same time will be determined by its main theme is portraits and genre scenes of peasant life ("Ñ"
, "Sleep shepherd
, "These are Batkin lunch"
, "The reapers"
Once the landowner-neighbor Venetsianov saw serf boy, drawing on the Board. Startled at the ableness, and maybe remembering themselves in childhood, Venetsianov understood his second assignment to teach the basic skills capable of peasant children. From this idea grew that would later be called "the Venetsianov School". More than 70 children he gave a start in life, there will be even medalists Academy. Someone had to buy out the owners, someone landowners gave the school themselves. Venetsianov taught them personally. His method was to prohibit copying someone else's picture and the permission to write only nature. The artist already podrostki two daughters, Alexandra and Felicita, who was also interested in painting. But not them, and peasant boys he carries in the Hermitage, and even to get a pass, returns for his sons.
In 1828 Nicholas I was urgently called Venetsianov in St. Petersburg. Modest provincial needed to fix the curiosity with the Englishman George Dawe
The first artist of the Imperial court. Ten years ago he wrote portrait Golitsyn
. Since that time, Golitsyn rose in the ranks and had to rewrite his uniform. But the Dow was already so spoiled that didn't bother with canvas, just finished a new uniform on paper and stuck to the picture. Of course, fake fall off at the most inopportune moment. For rewriting uniform and was caused by Venetsianov. Luxury Studio Dow unpleasantly struck him, but was even more amazed by the squalor of his serfs padmasiri. Venetsianov will spend a lot of effort to get free.
Short period Venetsianov work court painter, but later will give myself a vow not to write a custom portraits.
His works, except for the short time the Imperial protectorate, were unimportant. Before and after means forever missed. Because foreclosure talented serf adolescents, Safonovo not once was on the verge of selling. Once at the last moment was rescued by an unexpected purchase Alexander I picture "the Barn" - barely paying debts, Venetsianov donated the remainder to the children's hospital. Another time when the lack of money again will rise, he will have to, reluctantly, to send daughter Sasha
the noblewoman on her mother, to learn the trade of a home teacher. Not once Venetsianov will petition to grant him the place of the teacher Academy. But never it will not be allowed to compete with his skill as a teacher academics were not going.
Recent years Venetsianov were grim: wife
died from cholera, daughter of bespridannicy not made, students write a soulless embroidered portraits of happy peasants, insulting his pseudoroegneria all that Venetsianov was expensive in the art. Life Venetsianov ended in the winter of 1847 the cruelest way. In a horse cart, he left his estate in Tver, where he worked on the frescoes of Trinity Church. Suddenly the horses bolted. Venetsianov grabbed the reins to tame horses, but his wrist was caught in them, and he was thrown from the wagon. A few kilometers of his body fought on roadside rocks. When neighboring farmers found the artist, he was already dead.