- 7 July−14 OctoberRembrandt. Masters open in BritainThe landmark exhibition "Rembrandt. The wizard opens in Britain" combines well-known works of the legendary Dutch painter with works by British artists such as William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds, HenryEdinburgh, National gallery of Scotland, The Mound, Edinburgh EH2 2EL
He studied in London engraver at Agaml. Since 1720 attended classes at the Academy of James Thornhill, in the same year started to work as a professional artist. The first works of Hogarth were book illustrations, including satirical poem by Samuel Butler «Hudibras» (1726). Two years later began to write oil group portraits of small size and since then constantly worked as painting and engraving.
William Hogarth was born in London on 10 November 1697. He was the first child in the family of a teacher Richard Hogarth. Surprisingly, the son of a teacher at school was engaged in miserable. The lessons William usually draw for fun. Never having finished primary school, he moved to the teaching of the engraver silver Ellis Gamble.
In the workshop Gamble boy learned engraved coats of arms and ornaments on a silver dish. But my calling William seen in the graph. It was clear that to achieve this goal it is necessary «to learn to paint the subject, a few more intimate nature than the monster of heraldry.
In 1718, his father died, and, using the obtained skills in the work of the engraver William contains its labour whole family — a mother and two sisters.
In 1720 Hogarth opens his own engraving Atelier. But the execution of any small orders invitations, announcements bring him no satisfaction. At the end of the same year, William begins to attend an open Chernom and Underbanked Academy.
Not all arranged Hogarth. William engaged in self-education. The Academy visited by rare, mainly to Supplement their knowledge of anatomy.
In 1724 Hogarth, finally leaving the Academy, he entered the free art school, founded by sir James Thornhill, thereby artist whose paintings in the Cathedral of St. Paul admired the young Willie.
Between 1720 and 1730, the artist tries his hand in the field of book illustration, created in 1726 a series of engravings «Hudibras» is popular in England heroic comic poem.
In 1728, the first of his paintings, deserving attention. He plays a scene from the acclaimed at that time a theatrical production of «beggar's Opera», written by playwright John Gay and representing caustic satire on the English ruling classes. The skill of the story and brightness characteristics — what then will be the main party of creativity Hogarth, is already felt in this composition. Impact and its tendency to satirical art.
25 March 1729 in the old Paddingtons Church the wedding of Hogarth and miss Jane Thornhill, which the artist had been kidnapped. But it seems that pretty soon came reconciliation with the wife’s family, as the couple in 1730 returned to the house of Tornillos.
Himself Hogarth about this time tells brief and businesslike: «Then I got married and started to write small cabin pictures from 12 to 15 inches in height. Because they were new, it was a success for several years and sold pretty well».
The best of these paintings — «the Conquest of Mexico», «Family Wollaston» and «the Assembly in Wanstead-house».
Engraver and expert English painting Vertu in 1729 said about Hogarth: «Happy is he who can have a portrait, it is written». Author-volume work about English painting D. Mitchell in 1730 wrote to Hogarth: «Aristocratic family submissive your hand, by your orders rise of the Assembly».
However, these portraits demanded from the artist a lot of time and income were given little. Keen interest in the environment has prompted him to new opportunities. «I turned to a completely new genre, «said Hogarth, — namely, painting pictures and create prints on contemporary moral issues is yet to be tried in any country and in any time».
So there was the first who brought great fame to the artist satirical series of six papers, called «Career whores». Here reproduced simple as world history of a country girl, Mary, who arrived in London, which became a rich prostitute, and then imprisoned and died in abject poverty.
In 1731 the paintings were finished. In 1732 Hogarth have reproduced them in engravings. The series ' success was so great that prints immediately found 1200 subscribers. For the first series in 1735 followed by a second: «Career Mota», consisting of 8 small paintings, where the hero was wealthy slacker.
Income from publications of engravings provided Hogarth opportunity relatively independent existence. In 1733 he was even able to buy their own house in Leicester square, where he lived until the end of his days. A considerable legacy he inherited after the death of Thornhill in 1734. Now Hogarth lot of efforts on the artistic school located in a side street of St. Martin, previously belonged to the father-in-law.
His engravings, the artist has gained wide popularity with the British. In the late thirties to early forties Hogarth continues a number of its sharply satirical works, such as «Sleeping parishioners», and also creates humorous, genre — «Wandering actress».
An outstanding example of the art Hogarth of this period is the «Portrait of captain Karama» (1740).
«It was a great portrait, one of the best written by Hogarth, although historians English art rightly reproach him in a Frank tradition…
That person is innocent, but not without guile English man and philosopher like the squire of Alberti or Mr. Pickwick, that is the way the national, for our time has already book, nick; Hogarth grasped what was floating in the air, but in art is not yet realization, — and this, perhaps the greatest success of the portrait of captain Karama. And as for the globe in shining brass-framed glasses, books, scrolls, elegant buckles for the shoes, folds of loose coat, lying with a solemnity mantle of clouds over the ocean with this tradition Hogarth still have time to say farewell» (M. Herman).
Hogarth gave the picture to the shelter of foundlings, founded by KOREM in 1739, and convinced of other artists to follow your example.
In the forties, in the period of his artistic maturity Hogarth creates a number of its best works and as a portraitist, and as a satirist.
Such is, for example, is a group portrait «Children of Daniel Graham» (1742). According to G. Fossey: «the Picture rises in line with the «Portrait of five children of Charles I» works by the great Flemish master (van Dyck. — Approx. auth.). A rare example of a group portrait of full size picture Hogarth is considered one of his masterpieces due to instant expressions and wealth moralistic allusions. By contrast with the youth models, which is symbolized by, inter alia, two cherries — Paradise fruit, in the film contains notification about the vanity and irrevocably past time. Following the logic line-«snakes», Hogarth moves to counter the character of the images, precise and often paradoxical: notice almost human eyes of a cat over the boy’s head with an almost predatory smile and the living bird in a cage, like two drops of water similar to the dove, carved on the handle of the stroller.
Irreconcilable opponent of the template secular portraits, it usually refers to the portrait of relatives, close people. Filled with emotion and warmth «self-Portrait with the dog trump» (1745), «Portrait of Mrs. Salter» (1741−1744), Portrait of the servants of Hogarth» claim the images of the heroes, and raise the value of the person, regardless of her social rank.
«Self-portrait with the dog trump» is an image of the «English artist, bourgeois, intellectuals, indifferent, almost insolent, clearly very brave.» An equally bold and original choice of colours, founded on the roll call chocolate-colored dogs and harmony dark colors in General; the effect of contrast, but still reaching a kind of complete fusion.
Between 1742 and 1744 years Hogarth working on his paintings of the famous series «Fashion marriage». It is finding suitable for this work engravers artist has made in 1743 his first trip to France. Manufacturing he ordered the French masters Skotinu, the Raven, and the Baron. The order was completed in 1745.
«"Fashion marriage», the most significant depth of the intent of the series Hogarth, consists of six paintings; this is true and instructive history of marriage, sort of beautiful «novel of manners," writes M.L. Kuzmin. — Individual characters represent here, essentially, the entire social groups and their relationships. Opens a series of picture of marriage, in fact likened trade deal ruined the count’s son and daughter of a wealthy merchant. With a bored face turned away from each other, the young, while their relatives draw up a marriage contract. Painting «Soon after the wedding," continues the narrative; it every detail demonstrates the absurdity of existence of a married couple, about the indifference of young spouses to each other, about orgies and the collapse of the house, from which the Trustee shall make a stack of unpaid bills. The series completes tragic outcome — the destruction of its heroes. With amazing skill transfers Hogarth sequence of events reveals the characters, their relationships, manners, habits. Through his paintings, you can write entire stories. Each picture is complete independent work together, they are United by one idea and complement each other».
In 1745, Hogarth has arranged the auction, which «Career whores» and «Career Mota» were purchased for a small sum. In 1751 was appointed a special auction for sale of paintings «the Fashion of marriage».The announcement about the sale Hogarth wrote: «This will be the last series of paintings, which he will ever put up, because of the difficulty to sell such quantity of works immediately with any profits… So if anyone has their own taste, on which he can rely, the taste is not too fastidious to the works of contemporary artists, and who has enough courage to admit it and to give them a place in your collection (up until the Time that is considered zakanchivaem paintings, but in fact is their actual draftsman will not prepare them for more sacred resting places where Schools, Names, Managers, Craftsmen, etc. have reached the last stage of their increase), one can thus ensure that at least a large number of his works will not reduce their values.»
On the declared auction was only one buyer, which acquired all of the painting «the Fashion of marriage» for 120 guineas. After 35 years following the owner paid for them ten times more.
In 1747 Hogarth wrote a series of engravings «Diligence and laziness». 12 sheets of the series was «moraliarhodes» cycle. Here are firmly determined that the artist considered «bad» and «good»; it demonstrated the way to achieve honors and wealth and the way that leads to destruction.
In engravings «Street drunkenness», «Gin Lane» (1751) see other sides of life: with great pathos he revealed the «bottom» of London, horror drunkenness, bringing the poor into a state of complete stupor, a loss of all human.
In 1748 Hogarth went to Paris and causing suspicion local authorities, was detained in Calais, where I sketched ancient gate of the fortress. The artist was forced to settle on a ship and sent back to England. Hogarth was furious and in retaliation wrote the single «burning» a picture of this period is «the Gates of Calais».
In 1754 born series of paintings «parliamentary Elections», boldly drew one of the darkest sides in public life England: the struggle of parties in the rotten boroughs and collecting of votes acquired in patients idiots; in fact, the artist exposes all the corrupt bourgeois electoral system. For the series of the «Election» is adjacent excellent etching «the Court» (1758), where the artist achieves brilliant satirical generalizations.
A special place among the works of Hogarth is «Girl with shrimps». It is written exclusively easy, free, rapid strokes, liquid, almost transparent paint. Exquisite painting of this work, a good definition of one researcher, freely exist in this century not as the treasure of the past, and as a great luck today’s masters. The Hogarth managed to create this portrait English type girl of humble origins, charming, cheerful, radiating freshness and health, such techniques plein air painting, which anticipated the color quest for the next century.
Hogarth was one of the first English art theorists. In his treatise «the Analysis of beauty» (1753) he has acted as an advocate of realism seeking beauty in diverse forms of reality, of life itself, defending a leading place of genre painting.
Died Hogarth 26 October 1764.