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John James

United States 

1794 — together with his father arrived in France.

1803 — arrived in America to become a Manager urging his lead mines in Pennsylvania. However became interested in drawing birds, and neglected his business and eventually found himself in debtors ' prison. Freed, he became an artist.

1827, published the first of four volumes of the work "Birds of America" (Birds of America) in the form of luxury albums, huge size almost in half of human growth (prints 99cm x 66cm).

1838 — the complete edition of "Birds of America", was released the last volume.

1839 in Edinburgh came the final volume of the "Ornithological biography." Audubon was elected a fellow of the Royal society and the Linnaean society.

American ornithologist and artist, who made drawings of all known in the early 19th century birds of North America. Born April 26, 1785 in Les Cayes (Santo Domingo, now Haiti). About 1794 his father took the boy to France. In 1803 at his father's insistence, John went to America to manage his lead mines in the southwestern part of Pennsylvania. In the same year, the first in America have tried to do bird ringing, tying up horn young Lapwings silver threads. Soon he was seized with a passion for drawing birds, where he gave up his business and eventually found himself in debtors ' prison. After leaving prison, Audubon became a street artist. The drawings he managed, and he decided to do sketches of birds. In January 1821, Audubon arrived in New Orleans, where he was joined by the family. Soon, however, he again found himself in poverty and in 1822 moved to Natchez, where he taught French, drawing and dancing, portraits, painted river boats and even painted road signs. After a fruitless search of an American publisher for his bird illustrations, Audubon followed the advice of Charles Lucien Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon I and the famous naturalist, to make a cliche and try to find subscribers in Europe. In the end he managed to produce the copper plates and print drawings that Audubon painted then. In search of a publisher and subscribers Audubon in 1826 went to Liverpool, and during the trip made sketches of sea birds. In 1827 was published the first of four volumes of work Birds of America (Birds of America). Audubon was elected a fellow of the Royal and Linnaean societies, and the great naturalist Jean Cuvier called his drawings the most magnificent monument ever erected in honor of ornithology. In 1831 was published the first five volumes of the Ornithological biography (Ornithological Biography). Richer, Audubon began exploring the coast of Florida and offshore Islands, lagoons and dunes of Texas, Islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the 1838 edition of Birds of America was completed, and the last volume sent to subscribers. In 1839 in Edinburgh came the final volume of the Ornithological biography. The next project was the publication of Audubon the Viviparous quadrupeds of North America (Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America). To gather material, a scientist embarked on a voyage up the Missouri, hoping to reach the Pacific coast, but managed to reach only up to the settlements of the Mandan tribe in North Dakota.

Audubon died in new York on 27 January 1851.

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