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Jan van Goyen
Jan
 van Goyen
Netherlands 1596−1656
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Jan van Goyen was born in the family of a shoemaker. First painting lessons received in 10 years. Within two years he changed four teachers of painting. Goyen continued education in Hoorn, the master of landscape Willem Gerritse. After a trip to France Goyen in the course of the year studied at Esaias van de Velde. In 1618 van Goyen married in Leiden on Annetje van Relist and opened his own workshop. In addition to painting and selling your own works Goyen engaged in evaluation of works of art and sold them, as well as real estate, land and participated in the speculative trade in tulips, but the outstanding material progress is not achieved. In 1632 van Goyen, together with his family moved to the Hague, where he lived until the end of his life, continuing his unsuccessful attempts to succeed in the field of entrepreneurship. By 1656 his debts reached 18 thousand guilders. As you know, economic failure and debts do not affect the creative spirit of the artist.

The Dutch painter. He studied with Conrad Adriana of Schilperoort, Isaac van Swanenburgh and Jan Arents Le Mans. Then two goals he worked in the Studio of a Willem Gerritse in horn. Van Swanenburg was a master of historical paintings, which have nothing in common with the works of his pupil, and other artists known as the masters of the landscape, but because their works have not survived, it is impossible to know to what extent the traditions of the Leiden school was influenced by the art of van Goyen. At the same time, it is known that he spent a year in France (1615). Upon returning to Leiden, he worked in the workshop of A. van de Velde in Haarlem, which played a huge role in his work and was already evident in his early works. From 1620 until his death van Goyen dated all his works, so we can easily trace the evolution of his style. Van Goyen is one of the founders of the "realist" of the Dutch landscape. His landscapes 1620-1626 composed of architectural structures and scattered over the picture plane groups of characters and are written in bright colours with brown contours ("Rural landscapes, 1623, Braunschweig, Museum of Duke Anton Ulrich). In those years the artist created many small Tondo on the theme of "Summer", "Winter", "seasons", following the Netherlandish tradition, second half of XVI century Here, in particular, to talk about the influence of Jan Brueghel, whose landscapes of the early XVII century is made in a technique similar to van Goyena, and include genre figures. Circa 1625-1630 style of the artist varies greatly, like the style of Peter Molana and Esaias van de Velde, masters vzaimovliyaniya each other. Colourful variety becomes monochrome palette (green, yellow, brown and shades give to the landscape necessary unity with figures and buildings), the composition is simplified, it is just a bunch of buildings, trees or dune, located on the edge of the picture, figures and buildings, grouped on a diagonal, becoming, thus, of secondary importance. The liveliness and variety of the paintings depend not so much on the clutter of picturesque details, but from the alternating light and dark bands, which give the landscape a dynamic, wave-like nature ("Dunes and farm", 1632, Hannover Museum). From 1630 an important role in the landscapes of van Goyen starts to play water. In those same years, Salomon van Ruisdael uses a similar technique in the depiction of the Dutch lakes and rivers; and both artists were undoubtedly closely related to each other. Van Goyen and gradually acquires its own virtuosity letters detailing Mannerist and dynamism, characteristic of his work 1620-1626, 1630 gives way to a lean and clear structure of the paintings. The lower part of his paintings, which occupies almost a quarter of the whole composition, as if divided into zones of water and land, the rhythm of which is set a few light accents (ships, herds of animals, groups, buildings), performed with skill and grace. His brushstrokes are always visible (like Frans Hals) that enlivens the painting. A string of clouds - a characteristic element of the Dutch landscape - glides through the sky, which often takes at least three-quarters of the canvas, reinforcing this magnificent effect of the picture. In the late works of van Goyen compositions more simplified; the artist writes a huge number of works (Two oaks, 1641, Amsterdam, GOS. Museum; "Rhine view", 1646, the Hague, Museum). Van Goyen has performed many sketches from nature; to 1625 worked with a pen, then - mostly with a pencil. Known for its hundreds of individual drawings and several albums of sketches. Many of the sheets are dated, and with buildings that can be easily identified, in many cases, you know the place where these drawings were created. On the basis of field studies, the artist, in his Studio. wrote of the paintings themselves, which, although they seem to be "realistic" are, in fact, composed (for example, urban views, for example, Leiden, does not coincide with the real topografika area). Realism van Goyen lies rather in its ability to convey Dutch atmosphere, with its waters and the grey sky. After a stay in Leiden, van Goyen, in 1631, he finally settled in the Hague, where he lived until his death (excepting a brief trip to Haarlem). In 1651 for the municipality of the Hague, he performed a huge picture "View of the Hague". He sells his work, which follows from the documents in which his name is mentioned in connection with a commercial activity. It is also known that the artist spent a significant amount on the purchase of paintings, houses and tulips, which was considered at that time a great value. However, in the bargain, he was not always successful, and from time to time his financial situation was on the verge of collapse. Fame came to van Goiano while still alive as evidenced by the numerous imitators, as well as orders from William II and the municipality of the Hague. However, in the XVIII - first half XIX century the artist was almost forgotten, he was accused of monotonous color and lack of sophistication. Only in the era of impressionism, he, like Frans Hale, was re-opened and called one of the greatest Dutch artists of the XVII and artistic heritage of van Goyen very rich, his paintings are represented in all Dutch museums and in most major collections in Europe and the United States. His drawings have been preserved, particularly in the State. Museum in Amsterdam, Museum of Hamburg, in the core. the Museum of fine arts in Brussels and the Cabinet of Prints at Dresden.

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