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Elizaveta
Merkurevna Böhm (Endaurova)

Russia 
1843−1914
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Elizabeth merkuryevna BEM (nee — Endaurova; 24.02.1843, St. Petersburg — 1914), Russian painter, silhouette. 14 years old girl was doing at School for the encouragement of artists (1857-1864), from which he graduated with a gold medal. Studied under Ivan Kramskoi, Pavel Chistyakov, A. Badman.

In 1867, she married Ludwig Frantsevich Boehm.

Work Elizabeth Merkurieva (1868) participated in international exhibitions in Paris (1900), Munich (1902), Milan (1906) and all received medals. In Milan, the artist received a gold medal and exhibition in Chicago (1893), figures for the fans, and glassware.

In 1904, the artist was widowed.

Elizabeth merkuryevna BEM (nee — Endaurova; 24.02.1843, St. Petersburg — 1914), Russian painter, silhouette, was descended from an old family. Her ancestors, the Tartars, bore the name of Indigir meaning — "Indian rooster." Diploma given to family by Ivan III, the name was changed to Endaurova.

Elizabeth Boehm was born in the capital, but spent his childhood in the family estate Endaurova in Yaroslavl province. There, on the nature of the artist's parents moved when she was six years old. The brightest childhood memories of Elizabeth merkuryevna were associated with rural life.

Like many future artists, she since the childhood liked to draw: "the Love for drawing I had from a very early age; otherwise, I don't know how the paint on all pieces of paper that come across my hands. In letters to her friends St. Petersburg I was constantly put his sketchbook dolls and animals; and that is what drew the attention of a few people who understand that I should seriously pursue drawing" Life in Russia in the second half of the XIX century was not particularly endeared to the woman he was doing something else, except home, family and children, but the parents of Elizabeth Mercurine men are progressive and listened to the opinion of "understanding". 14 years old girl was doing at School for the encouragement of artists (1857-1864), from which he graduated with a gold medal. Studied under Ivan Kramskoi, Pavel Chistyakov, A. Badman.

In 1867, she married Ludwig Frantsevich Boehm, russianised Hungarian, a talented violinist, teacher, and later Professor of the Petersburg Conservatory .

The marriage was a happy one and the couple had several children.

How to silhouette Elizabeth merkuryevna has been actively working since 1875, when he took over "the publication of his first book of silhouettes, litografiruya their own and in the stone." It would seem that the lady is rather stuck produce silhouettes easy and familiar way — by cutting out from black or colored paper. But the artist has chosen a way, so as soon as possible lithographs drawing on the stone, allowed her to not only immediately release their books in small numbers, but to make the finest study of all the details that would be impossible when you are cutting with scissors. She carefully draws the feathers of birds and curls on the head of the village girls, the dog's fur and lace dresses dolls the fine details did the schedule böhm extremely thin, soul, alive, it is possible to understand the unspoken, what remains hidden from the viewer inside the silhouettes. In 1877, the artist is one of the most famous of his books — "Silhouettes of children". On large sheets of green color in it as if scattered white card with a silhouette image of kids. The combination of colors exquisitely in the room, which houses a collection of porcelain, as white tableware pattern is often placed on a similar greenish-brown background. The very structure of the book mimics the calm and quiet world of the family album that emphasized gray-scale, detailed images of herbs and flowers, as if forgotten by someone between the pages, the shadows from the cards... captions a bit pathetic: for example, a picture of two children playing musical instruments, signed "Future great musicians," girls, in the spirit of the time, called "Future moms" and so on.

In 1878 Elizabeth merkuryevna has completed the illustrations for the fables of Krylov. Human figures in this book, as usual, are conventionally drawn in space, made even something as superficially compared to the silhouettes. "Black silhouettes out she is much more effective than the background environment. She even seems a little student next to her silhouettes that are always masterfully executed," wrote about the work of Boehm V. I. Glotser .

In 1880, she created another book, which added to her fame — "Pie". On colored paper are placed white circles, which develops the story of young girls who made the cake and to the joy of a dog to drop it. The rhythm of the narrative is set static circles, whose position does not change from page to page, but every time there played a new scene. "Pie" was very well received by contemporaries of the artist, and his pleasure was considered not only children but also adults.

Illustrations for the next book — "From the village of memories" (1882) — Elizabeth merkuryevna has decided not to limit the tonal framework. Silhouettes in her free are on white sheets: kids pick vegetables in the garden, walking among the grasses, sitting on the hay... all of these subtle silhouettes are expressive and alive. A figure, which among the guys, the artist has painted himself, because every summer she continued to come to his family estate in the Yaroslavl province or to the estate of Balashevich under Tosno. Every time, before you go there, Elizabeth merkuryevna buying armfuls village scarves, toys and ribbons for peasant women and their children. The children loved her and called her lady "Bamia".

In the same 1882 she illustrated the Russian folk tale "Turnip".

Perhaps the most unfortunate book of the BEM was the "ABC" (18??), pictures in which "resemble provincial, neatly placed on the leaf cute baby models in masquerade costumes with those names". "ABC" is a great album, intended for home viewing table. Images of children here a little bit pretentious, but the book itself resembles a junk shop. The artist wanted to create something between a primer and a popular science book and to include as much information as possible about all sorts of things: coins of different periods, the Siberian stones, crockery, and Russian weapons, fabulous characters, etc. But the ability to systematize these materials, place them in a child form it is not enough. However, until the time when artists in General began to think about systematic alphabets and children's popular-science book, there were still a few decades.

In 1883, Boehm made the album "Types of "Notes of a hunter" by Turgenev in silhouettes" (the book was released in the last year of the writer's life). This album leaves illustrations alternate with pages on which among headpieces and vignettes placed fragments of text. And the silhouettes of hunters, fishermen, beggars, children, expressive and extremely accurate, because they were all based on numerous field sketches. A rare combination of affection and cognition made these silhouettes are attractive to multiple generations of viewers.

Worked as an artist and on the books for the little ones. For them she has created a small album "Proverbs silhouettes" (1884) and "Proverbs and Sayings in silhouettes" (1885).

Orders for the silhouettes came from other countries where the drawings of the Russian artist was very popular, and a publisher from Paris even offered an exclusive contract, but Elizabeth merkuryevna refused, because otherwise she would be unable to publish anything in his homeland.

Besides working on books, böhm appeared in periodicals. Her silhouettes were regularly reproduced in various journals and anthologies, such as "Niva", "New time", "Picturesque review", "world illustration". The artist supported the movement and ideas of the populists, arguing rather for the enlightenment of the people, than sudden revolutionary action. That is why she designed and richest edition, and penny books "Library of free education" I. I. Gorbunov-Posadov.

"There is a widespread belief that with marriage the woman always or mostly ends their art classes, reasoned Elizabeth merkuryevna is like music or painting or something else, not finding enough time for this. Remember the words of our great writer L. N. Tolstoy, who said that someone is calling is valid, then there is time as it is to eat and drink. And that's exactly the truth; I feel it by experience. Loving all your soul-I and to getting married and after giving birth to her child, all the same, if not more, doing things you love".

Most of his life the artist devoted to the creation of children's books. But with age, she became difficult to work in the technique of lithography, and she was doing mostly watercolors, painted greeting cards and illustrated children's magazines, "Toy" (1882-1886) and "baby" (1886-1887).

In addition, she created drawings of things manufactured for highest persons. So, in the book Lavrentieva there is a list (far from complete) of items that she painted at the time: "a few prayer-books with paintings on vellum; of a fan, for the silver wedding of Queen Greek, for the wedding of Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna, for a few Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna... Done watercolors on the orders of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, and to count S. D. Sheremetev".

Since 1893 Bohm became interested in the production of glassware. It happened after a trip in Orel province in the Maltsov factories where the Director of the crystal factory was her brother Alexander. She made shapes for dishes, focusing on vintage items: Bratina, feet, cups, ladles. Came up with the drawings for the enamels. She painted dishes and closely observed, if the painting was done by someone else. Some of the figures were engraved and then protravlivanie on the glass. And again, the artist tried to do myself, noticing only that "etching was not strong vodka, and fluoric acid is so poisonous that it is necessary to wear a mask at etching of" Work Elizabeth Merkurieva (1868) participated in international exhibitions in Paris (1900), Munich (1902), Milan (1906) and all received medals. In Milan, the artist received a gold medal and exhibition in Chicago (1893), figures for the fans, and glassware.

The work of böhm highly valued by his contemporaries — not only by readers of her books, but also major artists. "Black I love her more than most fair," — said Ilya Repin on the works of Elizabeth Mercurine. And even painted her portrait.

In 1896, when it was held honoring the artist on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of her creative activities among the numerous telegrams of congratulations was one from the publishers of "Mediator": "Edition of "Intermediary" in the day of your anniversary to warmly thank you for all that you did for national publications, and sincerely hopes that you will still serve your wonderful brush this case for the people. Leo Tolstoy, Gorbunov-Posadov, Biryukov". Congratulations are also sent to V. Stasov, I. Aivazovsky, I. Repin, A. Somov, I. Zabelin, A. Maikov...

In 1904, the artist was widowed. But until the last day, despite all the difficulties and troubles, she continued to be creative. "Now, she wrote in 1910, — that is, having over their shoulders 67 years, having adult grandchildren, I still do not leave their classes, and not so much because of necessity as love is still his thing."

Created by Elizabeth BEM subtle, soulful, live silhouettes will forever remain in the history of Russian picture book.

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