Mikhail
Ivanovich Makhaev

Russia • 1718−1770

Biography and information

Importantly, the field of life of the famous Russian engraver and painter of the middle of the XVIII century M. I. Makhaev decided not immediately. Eleven he was given training in the Central Academy.

In 1731, directed along with several other students in the Studio of the Academy of Sciences of instrumental skills (manufacture of theodolites and other devices necessary for the lifting of plans and drawing maps).

Three years later the young man was transferred to the workshop upon slovesnogo of the case to the master-engraver G. I. Ungezahlte. Here Makhaev lingered long. In the early 1740s, he was already considered the best lettering specialist and in the absence of Uparaja actually performed his duties.

A very large makhaeva role in the development of various types of Russian fonts. He wrote his own texts on the diplomas, awarded to newly elected honorary members of the Academy of Sciences, including M. V. Lomonosov and V. K. Trediakovsky. Later, in 1752, it Mahuevo instructed to execute compiled Lomonosov inscriptions on the shields of the silver tomb of Alexander Nevsky.

In the 1740s Makhaev on their own began to attend drawing class of the Academy of Sciences, which was led by renowned artist-designer John. Valeriani. In 1745 Mahuevo officially stated to learn "perspecta", that is the correct perspective image of architectural types. And here the head of it was who knew the promising science Valeriani.

Actually Makhaev became the first in Russia master in this field. And as it turned out, in time. A new Russian capital a little more known in Europe. To remedy this situation, and in commemoration of the impending 50th anniversary of St. Petersburg it was decided to publish the plan of the capital. Then to Supplement his views, "the noblest public buildings of the city" and to publish them in the album. The removal of types instructed Mahewu. In the work the artist used a camera obscura - an optical device that allowed using a system of lenses and mirrors to obtain on the sheet photographically precise image of the observed object.

From the late sixteenth to mid-nineteenth century the camera obscura was used by many artists. For two years the artist has performed 20 species. Of them Meeting on artistic Affairs, headed by J. and J. Stalinym. Valeriani engraving was selected 19. The work on "perspecta" was wrong. Initial drawing Makhaev corrected in accordance with comments Valeriani, refined details (if necessary) for architectural projects depicted buildings, complemented (with students) staffage figures of people, carriages, etc. Then took place the drawing pen and finished with ink wash. Merkuryev made up of great subtlety in the depiction of architectural details and however not lost sense of the whole. He was able to convey light and air.

Composite search for an artist was not limited to the selection "frame" and use of staffage. Thus, "the Prospect of State Collegia with part of Gostiny Dvor in the Eastern side of the" Gostiny Dvor heavily deployed in the South-East, and in the "Avenue up the Neva river from the Admiralty and Academy of Sciences to the East," the Peter and Paul fortress very close to the spit of Vasilyevsky island. Drawings makhaeva can already be considered not just an architectural view, but its architectural landmarks, first in Russia. Upon transfer to the engraving they have a lot to lose, became rougher and easier. He Makhaev was limited here by applying to the Board of the initial cut lines and explanatory text.

The album "perspective" was published in 1753 and was sent to European capitals. In the future Makhaev working actively: makes 7 figures Kamenny island in St. Petersburg (1753-57); from 1754, deals with the removal "of perspective" neighborhoods of the capital (among them "view of the Grand Palace in Peterhof, Palace in Oranienbaum", both of 1755, etc.). Just 1748-56. he has performed more than 30 "perspective", but many of these works have not survived.

The count P. B. Sheremetev Makhaev takes the album its famous Kuskovo. Continues to create views of St. Petersburg and its closest suburbs ("a View from the Kryukov canal up on the Moyka river with the image of the Palace of P. I. Shuvalov", 1757-59; "View of St. Petersburg down the Neva river", 1759-60; "Strelina Myza on the Finnish Gulf", 1761-63, etc.).

However, one of the last major works of the artist associated with the Moscow "view of the Kremlin from Zamoskvorechye between the Stone and the Living bridge by noon" (1766). Makhaev had pupils about the structure of the future which he strongly cared for, especially when the artistic work was transferred from the jurisdiction of the Academy of Sciences under the jurisdiction of AH. Makhaev wore the honorary title of "Academy of Sciences upon the engraver, and in the future, master." However, neither talent nor hard work brought him material wealth. In this respect, the fate of the artist was typical for Russia.