ROSE (Rosa), Salvator — Italian painter, poet, musician. From 1639 he lived in Rome, 1640−49 worked at the Medici court in Florence, then the rest of your life — again in Rome. Played well on the lute. R. belong to the texts of several cantatas and odes M. A. of Honor and Bandini. One of his 7 lit. Satyr (first — CA. 1640) criticizes the present-day. to him the Church. music. Eng. musicologist Bernie H in the «History of music» (vol. 4) mistakenly attributed to R. 8 cantatas (index of deposited manuscripts.) and 18 canzonet (index of deposited manuscripts. stored at the Institute of archaeology and history of art at the University of Rome) belonging to the Honor, John. B. Bononcini, A. Scarlatti. The identity of R. attracted musicians bright, versatile arts. talent. Liszt wrote the op. play «Canzonetta Salvatore Roses» («Years of pilgrimage», notebook 2, No 3, 1849), A. K. Gomis — Opera «Salvatore Rosa» (1874).
Salvator Rosa (Salvator Rosa) — Italian painter, engraver, poet and musician, born. in Renella, near Naples, 20 June 1615, was educated in the monastery and prepared to spiritual rank, but soon felt the attraction to art and began to study music, and then painting. Mentors him in the last was first, his brother-in-law, FR. Francescone, a student X. Ribera, Ribera then himself and finally batalicheskih painter Aniello Falcone. In addition to these artists, the talent of R. substantially contributed to the Scripture to them sketches from nature without any assistance. Eighteen years old he started to wander across Apulia and Calabria fell into the hands of local bandits and lived for some time among them, learning their styles and manners, and then worked in Naples.
In 1634 he moved to Rome, where he did not hesitate to buy a acclaim images characteristic, full of life scenes from the life of shepherds, soldiers and bandits, but, thanks to its satiram and in particular two paintings: «the Transience of human life» and «the Goddess of happiness, lavished their gifts unworthy», to the extent antagonized the Roman society that had to be removed to Naples. There when the revolution broke out, Masaniello, he participated in it. Between 1650 and 1660, he worked in Florence at the court of the Grand Duke George.-K. Medici, for the days when visiting Rome. Finally, again settled in this city, where he died March 15, 1673
Belonging in the direction of talents to the naturalists of the Neapolitan school of painting, having some affinity with their teachers, Ribera and Falcone, rose nevertheless showed, with a large variety in choice of subjects, a lot of originality in their interpretation. In the paintings on historical themes, he was able to combine realistic images with the nobility of a lively composition with strong expression of the idea. The best of these paintings is «the Catiline Conspiracy» (in the gallery of the Pitti Palace in Florence). Among other works of Roses in this way is particularly worthy of attention: «the angel and Tobias» and «Appearing to Saul the shade of Samuel» (Louvre Museum, Paris), «Jonah in Nineveh» and «Cadmus and Minerva» (in the Copenhagen gallery), Crucifixion (Brunswick Museum), «Prometheus» (Hague gallery), «the Prodigal son», «Ulysses and Nausicaa» and «Democritus and Protagoras» (in the Imperial Hermitage) and some others.
Portraits of Roses are very characteristic and expressive that suggests their similarities with posed before him by others. In those landscapes that emerged from his brush during his stay in Florence, as, for example, in the great seaside views, located in the Galleria Colonna in Rome, connoisseurs of art perceive the influence of Claude Lorrain. In other films of this kind is characterized by some delanote and lethargy. But rose is excellent, absolutely distinctive craftsman, imbued with poetry when depicts rugged mountains, wild gorges, dense forest, especially when he writes on the paintings of small size. There are many of his paintings in which the landscape plays a secondary role, but the main content make human figures — for the most part figures of soldiers and robbers. Such paintings can be seen in the Imperial Hermitage («Soldiers playing dice»), in Vienna, Munich, the Hague and other galleries. Finally, rose wrote beautifully of a very complex picture of the battlefields, a remarkable example of which is available at the Louvre Museum in Paris. Regarding the coloring of R. must say that it all has a great Shine, but hugely enjoyable for its warmth and consistency of light and shade.
In the last years of his life, rose worked hard engraving. They performed a total of 86 etchings of his own compositions, many of which can be considered one of the best creations of the artist and good impressions are very appreciated by lovers of prints, such, for example, «SV. William the hermit," «Plato and his disciples," «Warrior, sitting on the hill», etc.
Rose wrote several dramas, which sometimes acted as an actor, and a number of pungent satires.
This multifaceted biography of the artist published by FR. Baldinucci (new Venetian ed., 1830), Fiorillo (with the application of satire, R.; «the Poetic art», göttingen, 1785) and C. cantù (Milan, 1844).