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Victor
Alekseevich Shestakov

Russia 
1898−1957
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Scored 140 performances. He called himself not an artist-decorator, and an artist-agitator. Indeed, it was the agitator in the true sense of the word. A native of the town of eagle, Shestakov a schoolboy he participated in underground circles, but after the February revolution he was elected Chairman of the Oryol Union of students and member of the all-Russian Congress of high school students. In 1917, having started in Orel drama theatre, Shestakov at the same time, he painted posters and billboards for the campaign train, participated in the design of the red army clubs, streets and squares during the first days of revolutionary holidays. In the period of studying in the higher art (1921 - 1924) Shestakov was invited Meyerhold to the position of chief artist of the Moscow Theater of the Revolution. In 1927-1929 he continued working in the Theater. Meyerhold.

When making plays instead of canvas and paints were applied on wood and metal, instead of suits overall, is props - props, made of the genuine thing.

Arguing after I said the principles of constructivism, Shestakov build a unified installation, transforming with the change of parts, consisting of machines, platforms and stairs. The artist sought to find a new architectural solution of the stage space, to free the stage from the ornamentation and illustration. In a number of productions - "Man-weight" Toller (1923), "a Profitable place" by Ostrovsky (1923), "the Lake Reeling" Fayko (1923), "Spartak" Wolkenstein (1923), "Echo" bill-Belotserkovsky (1924), "Air pie" Romashova (1925) -Shestakov has developed a new form of stage design of the play, which despite some rationality, dryness, open prospects for the further development of decorative art.

Later, Recalling his collaboration with Meyerhold, Shestakov wrote: "This period taught me how to solve the performances in the three-dimensional form, given the amount of a scene a three-dimensional figure of the actor, learn to feel the dynamics of the action, own rhythm and spatial composition," through a fascination with constructivism Shestakov refers to the variety of pictorial and graphic forms. However, severe, laconic simplicity remains the basis of the style of the artist. "Tinsel on the stage, a poverty of thought" is his credo. Life examined every detail on stage that aspires to Shestakov. Based on pictorial volume principle of design, he creates interesting scenery for productions: "life is Good" S. AMA-global (1934, Mat # 2), "Beginning of life" Leonid Pervomaisky (1936, Mat # 2), "Vassa Glands Nova"* (1936, Theater. MOSES). In 1937, Shestakov was appointed chief artist of the all-Union agricultural exhibition and designed the main pavilion. Since 1946, the Shestakov - chief artist of the Moscow theater. Lenin Komsomol. Making out in the theater production of "Family" Popov (1949), "the Colonel FOS Ter pleads guilty" of Vaillant (1952), "Courage" based on the novel Ketlinskaya (1955), "the Cherry orchard" by Chekhov (1954) and others, Shestakov; have steadily expanded the range of expressive means of his art, skilfully included in the ensemble of visual solutions and all the action of the play landscape.

The artist did not break off ties with other theatres. Its design in the theater. VL. Mayakovsky was the Circle Maugham, of the actors Studio, "Death Pazukhin" Saltykov-Shchedrin and "Mandate" Erdmann. Work Shestakova has won gold medals at international exhibitions.

Many years Shestakov was engaged in painting. He wrote mostly landscapes, but have never put any of them ("Pine", 1926; "In the field", 1925; April, 1938; "Rain", 1946, etc.). Very significant was Shestakova pedagogical activity as Professor of the State Institute of theatrical art im. A. V. Lunacharsky Moscow state art Institute. V. I. Surikov. He directed the theatrical-decorative Department of the Moscow school of art memory of 1905.

(the author - M. A. Ostrovsky)

Victor A. Shestakov was born in the eagle in 1898, 2 March (old style). His parents: father - Alexei - Karachevsky, the tradesman, the mother, Alexandra Nikolaevna, the teacher.

Victor Shestakov studied in the 1st Orel gymnasium, kotoryy graduated in 1917, As a schoolboy, was engaged in the art Studio of the Oryol society of lovers of fine arts. In 1915 and 1914 was the participant of the exhibitions of this society, which is reflected in the catalogs.

For the first time was in the service in the theater in summer of 1917 Working in the theater "Comedy in the eagle." In the Orel drama theatre was the artist 5's performances ("the Forest" by Alexander Ostrovsky, 1917, "Autumn violins" Surgucheva 1917, "Alinur" Y. Bondi-Sun.Meyerhold). V. Shestakov was one of the organizers of the society of artists "primrose" in the eagle in 1918 he Served as an instructor, then head of the Art section of the Cult.-Clearance. The Department Is Watered.-Clearance. Management, Orel District Commissariat.

In 1917, V. Shestakov entered the law faculty of Moscow state University, from March 1918. visited 1 Free art workshops. In 1921 he became a student of the scenic Department of the VKhUTEMAS (all-Russian art and technical studios), where he studied until 1924 higher education had not.

In 1922, Vsevolod Meyerhold invited V. Shestakov as a painter in the newly created Theater of the Revolution. V. Shestakov to 1927 he worked as chief artist of the theatre from 1927 to 1929 he was the chief artist of the Theater. Meyerhold. With Meyerhold V. Shestakov worked from 1923 to 1935

In 1923 he was elected Chairman of the group of constructivists, was a member of the Lef. In 1920-e years. the 1930s. Shestakov is known as a constructivist theatre, author of urban performances ("Man-weight", E. Toller's 1922, "the Lake Reeling" A. Fayko 1923 "the Echo" by V. bill-Belotserkovsky 1924).

Layouts V. Shestakov took part in the famous Paris exposition of 1925, V. Shestakov won the gold medal in the section "dramatic art". Setting for the play "the Lake Reeling" was seen by the international art community.

In 1935 the great English film Director of the twentieth century, the innovator of the theatre Gordon Craig visited Moscow. Visiting the exhibition theatrical decorative art, noted the layout of V. Shestakov for the play "Spartacus" by A. Wolkenstein 1923, ("what a wonderful your master Victor Shestakov. From his model of "Spartacus" I literally could not tear myself away. This is a genuine monumental conciseness and the power on the stage" - V. Shestakov "About yourself. My life's work").

In collaboration with Meyerhold Shestakov worked on Russian classics. "A profitable post" by Alexander Ostrovsky 1923, "Woe to mind" Griboyedov A. 1928, 1935, "Krichinsky Wedding" by A. Sukhovo-Kobylin 1953, "53 faint" by Anton Chekhov 1955. These works relate to domestic productions, which used the methods of installation of household items, "pieces selected from the household, pointy visually combined". Used other cinematic techniques.

Work with Meyerhold, convinced the Commonwealth and the understanding of the Director and the artist at work, as well as the use of cinematic techniques in the performing arts - all brought in K. V. Shestakov 1920s -early 1930s to work in film not only as an artist but also a Director, screenwriter (film "Turner Alekseev", "PBC", "Delicious").

In K. 1930 V. Shestakov worked in several theatres including and II - art Theater. His sets are distinguished by monumental simplicity, no complex structures, the introduction of active scenery theatrical scenery, (performances of "Beginning of life" L. pervomayskogo 1936. "Vassa Zheleznova" Gorky 1937).

From 1924 Gol engaged in pedagogical work (supervised Studio juniors in the Theater of the Revolution). In 1930-e years he taught at the directing Department at GITIS, in 1940-50-ies. led the theatrical-decorative Department of the School of memory 1905.

Since the beginning of the great Patriotic war under his leadership was organized the workshop of students of the Moscow state art Institute. Surikov, which was attended by many teachers. The workshop produced posters, leaflets, cartoons, campaign slogans.

From 1946 to 1957. V. Shestakov was the main artist of the theater. Lenin Komsomol ("Hot summer" F. Kravchenko, 1947, "Brave Ceren" the Cherkashina L. 1953, "the Cherry orchard" by A. Chekhov 1954, "Courage" V. Ketlinskaya 1955). In the 2nd half. 1950s, the artist turns to the experience of the 1920s. the Theater actor resumes the play "Mandate" N. Erdmann in 1956 V. Shestakov, the artist of this production.

V. Shestakov led an active public work, one of the founders of the theatre division of Mosh. In 1948 he was awarded the title of honored artist of the RSFSR.

After his death his legacy was allotted to the widow Maria Isaakovna Bachrach between 3 institutions: the Art gallery in Orel, the Central State archive of literature and art (tsgali) and the State Central theater Museum im. A. Bakhrushin in Moscow. The eagle received the sketches of theatrical scenery and landscapes in 1930-50-ies.. a few of the original sheets 1920-40-ies and models to performances. The works of Vladimir Shestakov was exhibited in 1913 in Orel, 1922 in Moscow, in 1925 abroad. In 1958-59-ies had arranged a posthumous exhibition of the artist's first in Moscow, then in an abridged version in the eagle. In the last decade the works of V. Shestakov on display at the prestigious international exhibitions ("Moscow-Paris" 1981, "Moscow-Berlin. Berlin-Moscow" 1995 section"theatre").

The theatrical work of V. Shestakov is a significant part of the history of Russian and world scenography of the twentieth century.

(the author - Z. Starodubtseva, V. n/s Orlovsky Museum of fine arts)

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