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Julius (senior)
Yulievich Klever

Russia 
1850−1924
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Received a General education in gymnasium, in 1867 enrolled as a student of the Imperial Academy of arts, in the category of architecture, but soon chose a landscape painting, in which the first head was Professor S. M. Vorobyov. Receiving sketches from nature small and large silver medals, K came from among students of the Academy and developed his talent without the help of any mentors who only work from life. In 1876 he acquired the title of class artist of 1 degree, 2 years after was recognized as an academician (with the kind of running the Park in Marienburg, in the possession of Mr. Tereshchenko in Kiev) and in 1881, promoted to professors. The paintings of this artist are numerous. The motives for these he takes primarily from the nature of their homeland, the Baltic region, reproducing mainly, or melancholic impression of a cloudy and rainy fall, or the effects of a bright Sunny sunsets and sunrises in the winter. The dignity of these works varies: some of them are seriously considered and executed with strict respect to the task, do a great in strength, harmony, and veracity of colors; the other, written hastily, and components of the repetition or variation of previous works of the artist, suffer the sharpness of color and carelessness of the brush. Sometimes the best activities it is possible to consider 1875-85. Particularly successful paintings K. must admit, beyond the above, the following: "Forest in autumn" (in the Tretyakov gallery, Moscow), "Winter" (the Baron Girard, revel), "the Road over the marsh" (the heirs Botkin, Moscow), "View on the island Nalgene, Leaves, cluster of yellowish", "little Red riding Hood in the forest" (in the Museum of the Academy of fine arts), "Swamp", "Roots" and some others. A.—V. {Brockhaus}

Julius Klever was born 19 Jan 1850 in Dorpat. So in times past was called an old Estonian city of Tartu. Father Clover - master of chemistry is taught at the Veterinary Institute.

The family of the Clovers were big, noisy. Here appreciated the joke, loved the holidays, the whole atmosphere.

The family keenly caught that little Julius - artistically gifted nature. The family Council decided: you must give Julius to study for the professional artist. It was the painter Carl Kugelgen, nationality German.

In 1868 Clover wrote his first painting - a copy of the original of the celebrated German landscape painter Achenbach. Teacher, Kugelgen was pleased with this work.

It was nearing the end of high school, in the family of Clovers constantly discussed what the young man will learn next? Julius said that he sees himself in the future only a painter and wants to go to St. Petersburg Academy of arts. In the end, the family Council of the Clover took the "Solomonic solution": every young man dreams of Academy of fine arts - good. But let him learn to be an architect: architect's career more solid than the service of the painter, and gives a livelihood.

Having passed final examinations in the gymnasium, Clover gathered in Petersburg. Arriving in St. Petersburg, Juli Clover did not dare to disobey parental orders and enrolled in architectural classes at the Academy of fine arts. The young man consoled himself that the years of teaching do not last forever, for the sake of calming parents we can end up with boring architecture. Almost a year, the boy was tormented: every day more and more aware that nothing yielded to the insistence of relatives. Architecture annoying. Julius Klever was a man of emotional, impulsive, sad to pull the strap of the obligations could not and did not know how. No need to drastically change life!

Like a mountain fell from his shoulders: Clover petitioned the Board of the Academy of arts with the request to translate it in the landscape class. The request of the young men satisfied. 1870 Julius Klever became a student of Professor of landscape painting of S. M. Vorobiev, and then M. K. Klodt.

Alas, Julia Clover again, no luck: S. M. Vorobiev was a man by nature is cold, your subject taught without a spiritual fervor, and M. K. Klodt condemned the desire of young men to meet foreign landscape painting. Neither the first teacher nor the second did not want to appreciate the bold ideas of the young artist Clover. And then came the deep disappointment of Julia in academic pursuits: they became boring and theoretical courses seemed unnecessary. Although energetic, talented Klever received sketches from nature small and large silver medals, he again took a decision which plunged the family into despair. "I come from among the students of the Academy, wrote Julius in Dorpat. - Set a goal - to develop their talent without the help of mentors, working only from nature".

Clover began to look for ways in the world of painting alone. A young man set himself another goal: to graduate from the Academy of arts, and to represent their own paintings in the Imperial society for the encouragement of arts. Julius knew: artists, supported by this society, had the opportunity to create and eventually became famous.

Something happened, afraid of what the parents of Julia, what admonition of his father: from the Academy Clover was expelled. But a young person this circumstance little disturbed. He knew what was going to become a painter without the routine of public education. In 1871, his painting "Abandoned cemetery in winter" was approved by the connoisseurs, and count Pavel Sergeevich Stroganov, a powerful member of the Society for the encouragement of arts, wished to purchase it.

In 1872, Clover donated a few paintings, among them "Before the storm", "Sunset", "Winter view in the environs of Tsarskoe Selo". And again success! The painting "Sunset" has acquired the Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (1819-1876), President of the Academy of arts.

Two years have passed. Julia Clover was twenty-four years, and he was surprised by the Petersburg art in a wholly unexpected way: organized a personal exhibition. It was held on the stands of the Society for the encouragement of arts.

Not only in 1874, but later it was an unusual case, which ventured only a few painters, such as Aivazovsky and VV Vereshchagin.

After a solo exhibition happened: success followed success. In 1875 resistant artist received the award of the Society for the encouragement of arts for the painting "Running in the Park" in 1876, the painting "First snow on a plowed field." First step is the hardest, in the same 1876 Clover in his second solo exhibition (!) showed ten paintings and thirty sketches.

Petersburg amazed at his efficiency and talent, Clover spoke in salons, private art galleries. The painting "Birch forest" wished to buy Alexander III, and it was not just another victory: the painting purchase the king instantly decided the fate of the official Clover. Him not ending with the academic year, immediately awarded the title of class artist of the first degree. This is the title of Academy was given its most exemplary students.

Remained one step to the rank of academician. In 1878 Julius Yul'evich became an academician for the painting "Old Park", then sent to the International exhibition in Paris. This picture was so loved by the audience that Clover considered it a special, happy, and called "the Park in Marienburg" was repeated several times.

In search of new plots of Clover in 1879 with his friend Vasily Samoilov went to the island Nargen, the species of which was unknown to Russian art to the public. On Nargana they lived almost the whole summer. Painted in your album Samoilov, did - one after another - sketches Clover.

The middle of the NINETEENTH century was thus a time when many Russian painters, as if by agreement, sought to convey the diversity of the landscapes of his vast country. Artists worked not only in the vicinity of St. Petersburg and Moscow, they began to leave for the Urals, Crimea, Caucasus. They opened the audience with a mysterious Russian North, wanted to adopt the historical significance of his inimitable nature.

The famous artist was right: Petersburg had not forgotten the Clover. The artist waited for professionals, Amateurs, and connoisseurs. New work Julia Yul'evich was shocked: his work went to see them discussed, buying.

Then followed another event, another victory: "the Forest on the island Nargen" ("Virgin forest") acquired the "Moscow Medici" Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov.

While Julia Clover island Nargen continued to give his "fruits". About the painting "the House of the Estonian fisherman" constantly thronged by the viewers: she stood out among the other exhibits at the Society of exhibitions of works of art. The painting "Island Nargen" has acquired the Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich. She pleased to him because the Grand Duke was connected with the Baltic sea as a sailor. Not behind the brother and Alexander III: he bought liverovskiy "Forest in winter".

Golden rain of success and glory generously spilled on Julius Klever: Academy of fine arts, seeing how valued the works of a young artist the first family of Russia, appropriated the Clover title of Professor for the painting "backwoods" (1880, Russian Museum), and gave him in his apartment and workshop. It is those who for sixty years served the famous teachers of painting M. N. and S. M. Sparrow.

This new home Juli Clover came not alone but with his young wife.

In thirty-one years the artist has achieved just that in that era it was possible for the landscape painter. From now on, for the wealthy it was considered bad form not to have pictures of Clover. The door to his shop was not closed: were customers, friends, students of the Academy.

By the beginning of 1880-x years, the Clover is well established as an artist with an original creative person. The top take-off for Julia Yul'evich was 1880, when he according to the materials of the trip to the island Nargin the painting "backwoods". For "backwoods" Julius Klever was conferred the title of Professor and chair at the Academy of fine arts.

Clover did not aspire to the precision of the image and freely sacrificed it for the sake of expressiveness of the picture. He willingly wrote the fall and winter, with their harsh and sharp decorative effects. In contrast to the landscape painters of his era (except A. I. Kuindzhi), he appreciated the expressiveness of the underlined spots, silhouette, contour: they often played a big role in his paintings. Contemporaries Clover, his admirers claimed that the artist writes is new, bold, original, and his works make more love North of the Fatherland.

Noisy success enjoyed painting Julius Klever "Red Hat" (1887), "the Forest of ghosts" (1886) and "Forest king" (1887). It was the imagination of the artist, his "essay on the free theme".

In Soviet times, the artist continued his teaching career at the Academy of arts, and then at the Leningrad higher art-industrial school named after V. I. Mukhina. There he headed the Department of monumental painting. He became the honored artist of the RSFSR...

It was the last years of his life Julius Yul'evich Clover. In Petrograd was dominated by riots, hunger, devastation. But they did not prevent the young artists seek for advice and knowledge to the old masters.

Julius Klever was a wide nature. Earning a lot, he constantly needed, it is easy to spend money and without counting handed them out to numerous friends, and even strangers. Contemporaries considered just and disinterested person.

Recognition, awards and titles did Clover wealthy man. The artist himself to the limit, and if the money was out, then replenish the wallet by selling their art. When this period of creativity Clover took the brush, that, as told by his contemporaries and friends, wrote quickly and bitingly. At this rate, Clover was able to write on the picture during the day.

And in 1890-ies there was a dramatic turn in the life of Julius Yul'evich Clover. Indirectly, he was involved with gambling and money. Really hurt the other person, but Clover drew as a witness to a major case of financial abuse of his friend, former conference Secretary of the Academy of arts P. F. Iseev. As he said, he suffered innocently - were responsible for the waste produced by the President of the Academy, Grand Prince Vladimir Alexandrovich.

For Clover's participation in the trial was a serious blow. In those difficult days he kept thinking about what true Russian proverb "From the scrip and prison do not promise".

Yuli Yulievich then very worried, could not approach the easel, with home said on hysterical notes. Friends advised the artist to leave Russia before this whole financial and judicial history will not be forgotten.

The family Council long to decide which country to select for long lasting residence. Finally settled on Germany. Seven years Clover in Germany. Not to say that the time he spent in vain, all forgotten. From Yuli yulevich the exhibition took place, at the door of the workshop was not translated customers, the Newspapers took the artist interviews. Yuli Yulievich missed Russia and a lot of thought.

These thoughts helped the Clover to re-evaluate my work. The artist wanted to return to Russia to start a new life.

Unfortunately, Yuli Yulievich could not imagine the extent to which Russia could not feel what the winds blow. There were strikes, seething popular discontent with the authorities. New words appeared: "leaflet", "revolutionary", "proletariat"... the Prior art whether a country that resembled the volcano before the eruption?

The family of the Clovers returned to Russia in 1915. At the station, Clover met friends, fans, loud talking, hugging, kissing; put it in the hands of a few bouquets.

After returning home, Julius Yulievich staged an exhibition in Moscow, a trip to the Baltic States, Finland, Belarus, the Smolensk province. However, despite the change of Outlook, Clover remained true to himself. The artist has kept its "brand liverovskiy" handwriting, for which his works are bought, collected, published in Newspapers and magazines, on art postcards. And, of course, for which his works were forged. Liverovskiy effects give the work of the artist of bright individuality, originality and awareness.

Optimism, love of life helped Julius Yulevich to live to a ripe old age. He philosophically took the tumultuous events in Russia, about the old days recalled with a smile.

In recent years, Clover lived in Petrograd-Leningrad, he taught at the art school until his death continued to write. After the revolution of 1917 he, like others, supported the Society of artists named after A. Kuindzhi.

Yuli Yulievich Klever died 4 Dec 1924. [ I. Golitsyn. White city. 2007 ]

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