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Georgievich Chernikhov


Born December 17, 1889 in a small provincial Ukrainian town of Pavlograd, Ekaterinoslav province (now Dnipropetrovsk region) in a family where apart from him there were 11 children. Knowing that parents want to give it in "portrait" work as a photographer's assistant, Chernikhov runs away from home and entered the Odessa Art College - a branch of St. Petersburg Academy of Arts.

In 1914 Chernikhov moved to Petersburg, where he entered the painting faculty of the Academy of fine Arts and at the same time in the Highest Imperial educational courses. In 1916 he transferred to the faculty of architecture and finishes it with the title of architect-artist.

Called up for military service in 1916, was discharged only in 1926, but managed along the way to complete his education, graduating in 1925 the Higher art technical Institute (Vkhutein, the former Academy of arts) with the title "artist-architect". Worked in construction, having passed the way from foreman to designer. In the latter position he served at the Leningrad Institute of railway transport engineers (liizht) and other institutions. Invited to teach at the Moscow architectural Institute (MArchI), in 1936 moved to the capital.

Reached artistic maturity at a time when the architectural avant-garde left the scene of Soviet culture, staying in the status of a purely "paper" architecture, design, fantasy, or pure theory. Chernikhov reflected this process with maximum thoroughness in his books the Art of mark (1927), Geometrical drawing (1928), the foundations of modern architecture (OSA; 1930), Design, Construction of architectural and machine forms, 2nd, revised edition OSA (all three books - 1931) and Architectural fantasies (1933). The texts they accompanied by large number of masterly drawings, connecting the flexible rhythm of modern constructivist futures. "Everywhere replace the word graphics" - this slogan in the first of his books.

Created imagery of modern architecture and anticipated the computer graphics in the 30-ies of XX century. What was invented by Yakov Chernikhov, was either not implemented or implemented very little in his time.

According to the memoirs of contemporaries, he possessed extraordinary abilities, who are the visionaries and of people feeling the future with all his being, living not only in our world today, but in the world of the past, present and future. He could anticipate what will happen in the country.

Chernikhov started as an abstractionist, as a supremacist, loved figurative art, later became a constructivist. He believed that modern architecture must be beautiful, he was an architect, an artist, loved the light. He felt his era - the era of industrialization, has been passionate about machine architecture. The graphics were a means of composition. He began experiments on the concept of a change of pace. Asymmetrical compositions of ornaments, which he did, led him to understand that this is a stylistic shift. He made his graphic exercises in wicker ornaments. His drawing resembled modern computer graphics, so accurate was his line. He created architectural miniatures, trying to achieve the highest expression of fantasy in the schedule, those revelations that visited him, and wanted to show how beautiful could be the architecture.

Chernikhov clarified and developed their ideas, actively working as a teacher in liizht and MArchI. From the more traditional drawing system moved to this area to cycle Aristography showing (graphical tables) with the possibility of a purely formal combinatorics (cycle denoted by the Greek neologism which can be translated as "the best image"). Later in the series prevailed the historical-retrospective commencement (leaves Architectural romance, 1930-1944; Old city, 1933-1943).

Chernikhov died in Moscow on 9 may 1951. The interest in his work increased in the 1980-ies in connection with the dissemination of methods and images of the postmodern architectural conceptualism.

Yakov Chernikhov was born on 17 Dec 1889. in Pavlograd, Ekaterinoslav province (now Dnipropetrovsk region) in a family where apart from him there were 11 children. В1904 year Chernikhov leaving from Pavlograd to Odessa and entered the Odessa Art school, which was a branch of St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. In search of a livelihood young Chernikhov had to work as a loader at the port, Carthaginian, Carver Passepartout, a Retoucher and fo D., assistant architect at design and construction of the Odessa exhibition, so he early mastered the various sides of the graphical handmade craft.

The Odessa period was in the life of the future master of an important stage in the formation of the creative person; his teachers at the School were G. A. Ladyzhensky and K. K. Kostandi, the leading artists of the South Russian school.

It was in Odessa, formed a unique style Ya. Chernikhov: since 1912, he became interested in descriptive art, graphics and began working on a course of ornamental drawing, which set the direction of further creative quest; in the same year began his pedagogical activity, he then continues to the end of life.

In 1914, after graduating from College, he moved to St. Petersburg and entered the painting Department of the Academy of fine Arts and at the same time Higher educational courses of the Academy. In 1916. Chernikhov goes to the faculty of architecture and finishes it after the great October revolution, in 1925, with the title of architect-artist. His teachers were the teachers of the classical school as V. A. Beklemishev, D. N. Kardovsky, G. A. Kosyakov, I. A. Fomin and his "mentor" - the academician of architecture of Leontiy Nikolaevich Benois.

The range of problems occupying the Ya. Chernikhov, was unusually wide. Studies in geometric ornament and Suprematism, the development of new methods of teaching graphic and spatial disciplines, the theory of constructivism and the problem of forming of modern architecture, design and construction of civil and industrial buildings.

After graduating from the Academy of Arts in 1925, Chernikhov Ya for 20-30gg. doing production and design work in Leningrad. In 1927 he organized in Leningrad a private "Scientific research experimental laboratory of architectural forms and methods of gravirovani", where a circle of pupils and assistants have launched an extensive experimental and project activities.

He created designs for outposts of industrialization - metal-working plants, enterprises of chemical industry; designed a residential community, research institutes and schools (about 60 objects of his personal creativity and authorship, more than 30 projects executed under the direct supervision of Yakov Georgievich).

The greatest popularity in the construction of Nasledie.Chernikhov has received a draft of the water tower Rope shop factory "Red nailer" (1930-31).

Thanks to the practical construction of Yakov had the opportunity to study and analyze the specific properties of all components of industrial architecture. The actual design has a huge impact on the work of the master, and gave him ample material for experimental research.

Y. Chernikhov was an enthusiastic teacher. He began teaching painting and drawing as a student at the Odessa art school. Training at Higher educational courses at the Academy of fine Arts helped him to systematize its methodological research in the field of production of graphic literacy, based on the rich material of his extensive teaching practice in real schools, municipal and commercial schools.

Offering his disciples not to copy the build, and "compose" it,Ya. Chernikhov achieved amazing results: "I was able to prove that graphic literacy can also learn how a person actually become competent". (Y. G. Chernikhov "My creative journey")

As a teacher of Study, and then building and architectural faculties, he sought to convey to students the accessibility and clarity of the fundamentals of descriptive geometry. Was the Creator of a new system of visual AIDS, in which great importance was assigned to the graphics task, revealing the essence of the build through the game variations. To this end, he worked to create the "encyclopedia of geometric drawing", "image Methods", "Course curves", courses in "Projection drawing" and "Projection painting". These studies were accompanied by a huge number of drawings and compositions, aimed at further personal development and the development of teachers and students.

Y. Chernikhov taught at the Leningrad Institute of engineers of ways of communication (since 1933 liizht) at the Department of architecture (1928-1945 gg.), at the Industrial Academy NKTP - the rate of factory construction (1930-1932), people's Commissariat of Transport Academy im. Stalin (1930-1932), the Institute of engineers of water transport (1929-1931). He was the head of graduate design at the Moscow architectural Institute. For 22 years he headed the Department of Descriptive geometry at the Moscow Engineering - Economic Institute. After Sergo Ordzhonikidze. His last place of work became the all-Union Correspondence Institute of Industrial Construction Materials, where Chernikhov became the head of Department of Descriptive geometry and graphics.

Relatively late engaged in the movement of constructivism, when already past the peak of laboratory searches, at the turn of 1920-1930-ies Chernikhov published in Leningrad books of architectural fantasies that brought him world fame and the title of "Soviet Piranesi": "Fundamentals of modern architecture" (1929-1930s.), "Construction of architectural and machine forms" (1931), "Architectural fantasies. 101 composition" (1933). Beautifully printed and decorated a huge number of architectural fantasies, which predicted the distant future of architecture, these books later served as a source of inspiration for many generations of architects.

In 1933. at the direction of S. M. Kirov in the Anichkov Palace in Leningrad was an exhibition of works Ya. Chernikhov "2222 architectural fantasies", presented the results of his many years of experimental research in the field of architectural problems and techniques of fine art. The exhibition reflects the creative path taken by the author, consistently acquainted with various techniques of graphic inscription, ranging from ornamental pictures to the most complicated architectural compositions.

Simultaneously with search in the region constructivistic architecture enjoys Ya. Chernikhov architectural fantasies on the theme of architecture of past eras. That created "a Cycle of picturesque architecture", which includes "Architectural fairy tales", "Architectural landscapes", "Architecture of wooden buildings", "tales from the industry", "Architectural romanticism" (1931-44gg.) etc.

30 years - the most fruitful period in the life of the Ya. Chernikhov. He has many designs, builds, teaches, works as a teacher and printmaker, engaged in publishing. Shortly before the 2nd World war Chernikhov completes the cycle "Architecture of palaces" (1934-41.): "Palaces of communism", "Architecture", "Architectural ensembles", and during the war created a series of projects and compositions on the theme of "Pantheons of the great Patriotic war" (1942-48гг.) a cycle "Military camouflage".

In different years he also executed several works in the field of theory of architecture, proportions, architectural aesthetics and methodology of teaching graphic disciplines. Among them, the "Entasis, and the Fust column", "Methods of architectural design", "Geometric drawing", "Color and light", "Aesthetics of architecture", "Beauty in architecture".

The last work of J. Chernikhov, who he never managed to complete, was a book of "analysis of the construction of the classical font", published after his death.

Yakov Chernikhov died 9 may 1951 in Moscow.

Not adhering in any way organizationally to the left of the art and relatively late engaged in this movement, Yakov Chernikhov, however, remains in the history of modern architecture one of the most striking and romantic artists, whose work has become a classic end of the quest "the Soviet 20's".

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