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Dmitrievich Merkurov


Nar. hood. Of the USSR (1943), academician of the Academy of the USSR (1947). Member of the CPSU(b) since 1945. He studied at the Munich Academy of arts (1902-05). From 1906 lived in Paris, 1909 in Moscow. From 1929 a member of AHRR. In 1944-50, Director of the Museum Fig. arts.Pushkin. Sculptor, author of the monument to F. Dostoyevsky (1911-13) and K. Timiryazev (1922-23) in Moscow, Dzerzhinsky Stalingrad (1932) relief "Execution of 26 Baku Commissars" in Baku (1924-46), sculptural group "death of the leader" (1927-47), numerous statues and monuments to Lenin (including in the Kremlin Palace, 1939) and Stalin (including the agricultural exhibition, 1939) and other works. Shot to death masks of many state and party. figures, figures of culture and science. The Winner Of The St. St. (1941, 1951).

Born in Alexandropol (now Gyumri, Armenia) on October 26 (November 7) in 1881 the family entrepreneur. He studied at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute (1901-1902), and then at the philosophical faculty of the University of Zurich, simultaneously learning the art of sculpture in the workshop of the sculptor Adolf Meyer ; later studied at the Munich Academy of fine arts (1902-1905). Worked in Paris; has been heavily influenced by the art of symbolism, as well as sculpture of the archaic period (Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt). Back in Russia (1909), lived in Moscow. Was a member of AHRR (see AHRR).

In his Mature manner, adhered to a kind of "academic" modernism, not engaging in risky experiments, but retaining the characteristic features of this style: the cult of "eternal themes", especially the topic of death, a dramatic contrast of shape and material (stone block). Assuming to become a philosopher, Merkurov and the early images were made motif heavy, painful Duma (the statue of F. M. Dostoevsky, 1911-1913, installed as a monument in the framework of the plan "monumental propaganda" in 1918; the figure is the personification of Thought, 1913, now at the grave of the author at the Novodevichy cemetery; both monuments – granite). Repeatedly shot to death masks, including the famous writers and politicians (L. N. Tolstoy, V. I. Lenin, A. White and others). Among his post-revolutionary works are widely known for majestically bleak monument to K. A. Timiryazev (1922-1923).

However, the greatest fame brought him the monuments of the leaders, is also full of severe (group mourning the death of the leader, granite, 1927, the Central Museum of Lenin, Gorki Leninskie; Lenin statue that adorned the hall of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR prior to its restructuring, marble, 1939, the Kremlin, the Lenin statue in Volgograd, Magnitogorsk, Ulyanovsk and many other cities). Sketches Merkurov was created by the three largest on the territory of the USSR the monument to Stalin; they are usually performed in wrought copper. The largest monument in Yerevan (the height of 49 m with pedestal; 1951), the other two stood at the entrance to the Moscow Canal (1937) and ENEA (1939). Rough "Assyro-Babylonian" the power of these images (they were all dismantled in the period of "thaw") accurately and openly expressed his "superhuman"-a brutal spirit of the Stalin era, who acknowledged only one Hero. For "Lenin" the Kremlin and "Stalin" for ENEA and Yerevan sculptor was in 1941 and 1951 was awarded the Stalin prize.

Work Merkulova determined the official Soviet style gravestone (granite busts of Hermas Sverdlov, Dzerzhinsky, Frunze, M. I. Kalinin, A. A. Zhdanov on the red square near the Kremlin wall, late 1940's-early 1950-ies).

Died Merkurov in Moscow. In 1953 he published his notes of a sculptor. In the hometown of the wizard opened his Museum (1984).

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