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Karl (Carlo)
Ivanovich Rossi

Russia 
1775−1849
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1775-12-18

Died 1849-5-6

In 1795 was defined in the Admiralty office "from foreigners architecture gaselier"; in 1796, was attached to the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty. Honorary free member of the Imperial Academy of arts from 1822, the Builder of the buildings of Senate and Synod (1829-1834); Michael (now the Museum of Emperor Alexander III) (1819-1832), Yelagin palaces; the Alexandrinsky theatre (1827-1832.); Chief of staff (1819-1825), each.

(Kondakov)

Born in St. Petersburg 18 (29) December, 1775; was a son of an Italian ballerina G. Rossi. Learned architecture in practice, working under V. F. Brenna, his teacher and longtime friend. From 1796 was his assistant on the construction of the Mikhailovsky (engineers') castle. In 1803-1804 he studied in Italy. Upon returning to Russia was appointed artist in glass and porcelain factories in St. Petersburg, then the architect of the "Cabinet of His Majesty" (1806), and in 1809 – "expedition of the Kremlin" in Moscow. From the Moscow works of the architect (the neo-Gothic Church of St. George and the superstructure of the Kremlin Nikolskaya tower, wooden theater on the Arbat square) is almost nothing left. In 1809 updated the Travel Palace of Catherine II in Tver, built by M. F. Kazakov (1763), finished with its gorgeous interior décor. During these years, have worked hard perfecting their gift of the architect-planner, not only in Tver, but in the small towns of the province (Bezhetsk, Kashin, Staritsa, Torzhok), designing many buildings for various purposes, doing planning in General.

In 1815 he returned to St. Petersburg, becoming one of the founders and main architects of the Committee for buildings and hydraulic works. Rossi has made an important contribution to the decoration of Pavlovsk (Glazovo village with houses in people's houses, the library of the Palace and other buildings 1815-1826, most of them, however, have not survived), created a remarkable architectural and Park ensemble on Yelagin island (1818-1822), Palace, pavilions and farm buildings, artfully arranged with greens and ponds. But the main sphere of his creative activity became an actual town, not the natural environment. Largely thanks to Rossi Petersburg to 1830-th year has found a new face, becoming from the capital to several other European capitals in the center of a giant Empire, proud of its victories over Napoleon. Monumental and rigorous ensembles that specifies the scale of the whole huge city, optimally expressed this Imperial greatness.

In 1819, Rossi has completely transformed the space in front of the Winter Palace (significantly updated them in 1818-1827 and inside; however, the interiors have been preserved only the war gallery of 1812, rebuilt after a fire in 1837 by V. P. Stasov). In place of individual private homes he built two grandiose buildings of the General staff and ministries, United by a curved facade and triumphal arch over the Sea street. The basis for the reconstruction of another district of the capital, between Nevsky Prospekt and the Champs de Mars – was the construction of the Palace for Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich (1819-1825; now the Russian Museum). Rossi opened the space in front of the main facade of the Palace, designed rhythmically proportionate to him, the area, surrounded by the same field of Mars, where facing the other facade has also been radically redesigned. The most ambitious of ensembles Rossi has its origin in the restructuring of the Anichkov manor (1816-1818); transforming the area from Nevsky to Chernyshev bridge across the Fontanka, Rossi was erected here in 1828-1834 Alexandrinsky theatre with the exhaust from its rear facade of Theater street (now the street of the architect Rossi) with two homogeneous extended chassis with twin Doric columns; with the city theatre and the street linked the Theatre square and Chernyshev. The last of the major ensembles were built on the Senate square; projects Rossi (implemented in 1829-1834 by architect A. E. Staubert) determined the shape and structure of the United arch buildings of Senate and Synod, – and thus was completed the system three main squares of the city center (the Palace, the Admiralty and Senate).

Creations Rossi – in addition to their urban values – inherent and amazing decorative integrity: as in powerful, strictly-designed architectural accents exteriors with their powerful columns and rustication, and sculptural decoration (Rossi collaborated sculptors V. I. Demut-Malinovsky and S. S. Pimenov who executed the sculptural decoration of the arch of the General staff and the Alexandrinsky theatre) and in the internal design. Sometimes he is Rossi – as it was in the white column hall of the Mikhailovsky Palace – sketching interior paintings and reliefs, furniture and lighting, thereby achieving a characteristic of the Empire style universal wholeness style.

Entering into conflict with the environment of Nicholas I, of Russia in 1832 resigned, resigned "from all the class buildings." Later he was given only one significant order for the restructuring of the auditorium of the Alexandrinsky theatre.

Rossi died in St. Petersburg on 6 (18) April 1849.

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