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Ivan
Ludwigovich Matza

Russia 
1893−1974
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B. in Austria-Hungary. Son of rural teachers. He graduated from high school, worked as an Intern in a drugstore, and later engaged in journalism. Since 1915 began to publish in different journals (articles on Ibsen, Strindberg, Wedekind). In 1916 he published the book "Contemporary Hungarian theatre", in which he spoke out against the "unprincipled theater." In 1915 he joined the group of Hungarian activists (see the "Aktion") (Sib. "Action" was banned for anti-militarist propaganda). During proletarian dictatorship in Hungary, worked as Asst. dir. "The national theatre". After the fall of the Soviet regime, he emigrated to Czecho-Slovakia, where in 1920 he joined the illegal cell in the range. KP. Later he was a member of the regional Committee and CTE. editor, daily on the East-Slovakian region of the HR Committee, continuing to work in the magazine activists. From 1922 organizationally broke up with activists, together with A. Barth and B. Whip was organized by Sib. "The wedge", which had as its objective the cultural service of the revolutionary workers ' movement. In 1923 he moved to Moscow, worked at Eno of Glavlit. At the present time — Chairman of the section of the spatial arts Nilii of the Communist Academy, Professor at several art schools, a member of GUS, a member-correspondent of the Communist Academy; conducts active work on the organization of research activities in the field of fine arts. Breaking with activists, organizational, and M. still for a long time did not break with them ideologically. The installation of the "ideological revolution", a substitute for the actual process of class struggle, organizing the opposition to the mechanistic role of art in its cognitive value has affected its methodology until the beginning of 1931, when these deeply flawed installation was opened art discussion. Highlighting the effective value of art and contrasting this understanding of his Menshevik objectivism, M. fell into the other extreme. Replacing "institutional" mechanistic principle of Bogdanov's dialectic of social development, Matzah often thinks of art as "the organization", as direct modification of objects of objective reality, in fact, removing the qualitative distinction between the material and spiritual production, emasculating its ideological content. Thus Matzah detects a misunderstanding of the Leninist teachings on consciousness. The Outlook and thinking of M are replaced with the organization of "psychic relations" and the concept of the idea is replaced by the subject. The leading point in the artwork of M. similarly Pereverzeva understanding acts as a de-ideologized image. In General, the epistemological construction of Bogdanov and then entice M. the way of subjective idealism. From the same mechanistic "organizational principle" to derive a theory of equilibrium, to-Rui M. under the direct influence of the mechanistic concepts of historical materialism Bukharin opposes in the field of art to the real contradictions of social practice. These erroneous methodological attitudes expressed in this collection of theoretical articles ("Essays on the theoretical art studies"), could not affect the specific artistic and literary works of M. So, built on a mechanistic theory of equilibrium, and subjective "organizational principle" of the book "Lit-pa and the proletariat in the West" by M. based on the absolute opposition of psychology and ideology, and fiction, in his opinion, is a means of bringing "to perhaps the complete balance of all elements of social (or class) of psychology". Ignoring the unity of psychology and ideology, Matsa finds that writers Express in their works the ideology of the proletariat, do not Express both his psychology; therefore he comes to opportunistic insights that the West is no proletarian literature, and only literature about workers and for workers, to a discussion of "mixed-class" psychology, etc. However, the analysis of M individual literary facts has considerable value. M. exposed, eg. non-proletarian nature of the various writers, who were considered a proletarian. So, M. have shown that the production of the novel dump of a specific org, with its fetishization of the production process and lack of understanding of the revolutionary role of the proletariat should be considered as a phenomenon of ideologically hostile; that Sinclair with its position of the artist of the radical petty bourgeoisie does not and can not give the image of the revolutionary worker. "Nature-romanticism" D. London also received a M. proper assessment. A serious statement of some of the problems of proletarian literature and style, its form, given here by M. for the first time, makes this book interesting and at the present time, in spite of these errors of the author. Establishing a direct dependence of the "fundamental qualities" of art from the "fundamental qualities" of technology, M. in his book "the art of the era of Mature capitalism in the West" reproduces the theory of "organized capitalism" in spite of Lenin's assessment of the epoch of decay of capitalism: the art of the big bourgeoisie of the last decades, in the interpretation M, is a continual ascent "cheerful class-Builder". There is a clear prvoaprilska apologetics of capitalism, reflected in turn in questions about the attitude to cultural heritage, in denying the existence of proletarian art is not only in the capitalist West, but in the Soviet Union. These settings M., rooted in his whole concept of art, expressing obvious pressure hostile to the proletariat ideology, are closely connected with the non-Marxist methodological position that he or she acquired and held in the beginning of his scientific career in Hungary as a representative of the opposition petty-bourgeois intelligentsia. In its subsequent evolution under the direct influence of the theory I. the practice of building socialism, the proletariat M takes a number of hostile to Marxism-Leninism and the provisions on several issues is in the right position. But a radical revision of the methodological position of the author starts after the art of debate and known motoricerca of the CPSU(b) of 23 April 1932. The result of this revision is a new scientific work, M. — "the Creative method and artistic heritage" [1933]. A great job done by the author for the direct study of Marx, Lenin and Stalin not only helped to put the crucial methodological issues, but also gave fruitful results in a particular analysis, the formulation of the most difficult problems of artistic form and its elements, color, composition, etc., which are still in the Marxist literature was not lit. This work is not only a turning point for the author, but also essential to the Marxist criticism in General, despite the controversial and even some abstraction of a number of separate provisions. Bibliography: I. In Russian. lang.: The art of modern Europe, Giz, Moscow — Leningrad, 1926; Literature and the proletariat in the West, Publishing house of the Communist Academy, Moscow, 1927; the art of the era of Mature capitalism in the West, ed. the same, Moscow, 1929; Essays on the theoretical art history, ed. same, M., 1930. In collections: "Art in the USSR and tasks of artists," vol. same, M., 1928; "the development of proletarian art", ed. same, M., 1930; "the Leninist art studies" (Materials of the discussion in the Communist Academy), ed. by Y. Anal, ogiz — IZOGIZ, Moscow — Leningrad, 1932; IZORAM, ed. the same, Moscow — Leningrad, 1932; Creative method and artistic heritage, ed. same, 1933; Creative questions of Soviet art, ed. the same, 1933. Wingers. lang.: Contemporary Hungarian drama, 1916 (Modem magyar drama); Theatre, 1918 (Szinnaz); dramatic art, 1922 (Teljes szinpad); the fairy tale Propaganda, 1921 (Agitacios mesek). A number of uncollected articles on theatre, drama and General arts. In German. lang.: Working (Arbeiter chor, Dresden, 1924), Moscow (Moskau, Frankfurt am M., 1924). Translated into Japanese. yaz. the book "the Art of modern Europe." II. Reviews on "Art of modern Europe": L. Z., "Under the banner of Marxism", 1926, XII; A. V. Lunacharskii, "New world", 1926, VII — VIII; Jakubowski, "October", 1926, X — XI. On "Literature and the proletariat in the West": Nusinov I., "Revolution and culture", 1927, III — IV; Jakubowski G., "Krasnaya Nov", 1928, I; Matejka, J., "the Bulletin of foreign literature", 1928, IV. About "Art in the era of Mature capitalism in the West": Shevelchinskaya L., "Under the banner of Marxism", 1930, IV. Yu Anal. {Lit. Enz.} Matsa, Ivan L. B. 1893 mind. 1974. The art historian. A specialist in aesthetics, theory of architecture and art industry, the problems of contemporary art culture. Member of the company "October".

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