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Mikhail
Mikhailovich Tsekhanovsky

Russia 
1889−1965
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Biography and information

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School experiences of drawing, a few years in Paris (1908-1910), where Tsehanovsky worked in the private sculpture Studio, then the St. Petersburg Academy of arts, and from 1914 - the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture. After graduation in 1918 Tsekhanovsky was mobilized into the Red Army, since 1923 he was back in Petrograd, where for several years engaged in various kinds of applied work, in particular, draws advertising posters.

The beginning of serious art, which can be seen in surviving works (early painting experiments did not reach us), refers to 1926, when Tsehanovsky came to the publishing house "rainbow" and the children's version of Lungisa and began to illustrate and draw there are books for kids and Teens. It was a time (a little more than a decade - from mid 20's to the second half of the 30-ies), when Leningrad was formed and engaged group of talented illustrators, giving books for children, the status of artistic, entertaining and informative cultural phenomenon. Tsehanovsky organically joined the group, whose leader was V. Lebedev, and took in her special place and find your specific area of illustration. It was mostly books, telling the children about technique, about discoveries, about the device everyday things and how they are made.

In the books popularizer of science and technology M. ilina, S. Marshak, Boris Zhitkov and other authors who Tsehanovsky designed and illustrated, it was picked up and then developed and filed with a clear artistic expression typical of the time industrial, pathos, delight at the beauty of industrial structures, different machines. In the genre of popular science books for children with Tsehanovsky could compete only N. Lapshin - in fact, the Creator of a special kind of informative illustrations. But Lapshin is mainly interested in books of historical and historical-technical nature, stories about the machinery of bygone days and travel - so this technology is not in itself, but primarily people associated with the technique.

Tsehanovsky as his main character often made it a machine, a thing, an object. For example, in the book Ilyin "Pocket companion" (1927), he with great care and skill draws the main character - a folding knife with its blades, saws, ruler.

The illustrations Cebanovschi manifested a love of the subject, sensitivity to texture, material, device. This attention to things was a sign of the times. Creativity Chaosmage has the common nature with the then artistic design and applied graphics, coming from a cubist interest in the texture of things and its structure. Baby pictures Cebanovschi should be regarded as one of the manifestations of the revolution in aesthetic views and artistic culture of the time. This revolution has put the human face of the world, raskislenija and being modified by machines, a world with clear, subject to the person space and speeding up the running time.

For the artist's aesthetic development of the world was real - tangible and visible. Subject to Tsekanovskii was a quote from the life of a document. Hence in the illustrations of the artist's factual accuracy, graphical dryness, reaching certainty, the frontal and the complete absence of environment - lighting, spatial depth. Subject Cebanovschi extracted from the environment and placed on the white field of the page, as in the neutral display. In this showcase, the artist deploys a sequential story, putting the main object, such as a tram (in the book Marshak "Seven wonders", 1926), surrounded by travel tickets, coins, bags of the conductor, etc.

The admiration of the world, which is full of trams, locomotives, ships, aircraft and cars, the world is not standing in one place, pervades the most famous book Cebanovschi Mail with verses Marshak (1927). The book is filled with movement, writing in her travels, flying, racing around the world in pursuit of the destination. The book is based on the principle of mounting frames. Several times on different pages appears the envelope of the letter, which added new stamps, amendments', stickers. In the end, the impression of a single time, during which, fragmentarily recorded in the drawings, occur spatial movement.

"Mail" as the story of the journey expressed in its fine texture desire to transgress the illustrations for fragments stopped traffic and interrupted by moments of time. The apotheosis of all moving owned the hearts of the people of the era of great construction projects of the era who lived the slogan "Time, forward", "Meet the comer", etc. with a Sharp rhythm, the rapid dynamics of the filled with contemporary artworks Cebanovschi - for example, Deineka, with its numerous runners or industrial motives, which is always something twists and turns, Chaikov ("Players"), Labasa, with its airships and locomotives, and many others.

Have Cebanovschi relationship to a man-made machine, piercing the stagnant space (the same airship - the book V. Zhitkova "Hurricane"), was painted romantic pathos. His favorite hero was a locomotive with a naked mechanism of the movement - the visible embodiment and symbol of the technical reconstruction of the world. In response to the call of the era "Our engine, go ahead" Tsehanovsky tried to make real movement in their work. From the illustrations with their conditional dynamic rhythm of the story, in which the movement is dissected into moments of static, Tsehanovsky moved to the so-called kinonikon. This was the edition on thick paper, the pages of which were painted the same slightly varying motives, such as consolidation, that is, as if the separate phases of the movement, that rapid flipping effect created a recovery image approximation of the same train ("Train", 1927). Here was only a step away from kinetic art, and Tsehanovsky took this step. He began to translate his drawings on film.

Reception animation (reproduction of the static phase) was known before the invention of cinema itself. Drawn on the paper tape images of Emile Reynaud was the first hand-drawn films. With the invention of a method of capturing an image on a photographic film have the opportunity to capture phases of motion directly on the film without a storyboard on paper. Tsehanovsky did not only animated films, he appeared in print with the support of his understanding of art. Animation he called "a new organically related branch out". This view had to defend, as then drawn films were considered frivolous entertainment kind of movie ("Murzilka" in terms of 30 years). In fact, the animation with the movie besides the film nothing in common, and Tsekanovskii was entirely right, proving in the article "From bunty to the great art" that animation is a new spatio-temporal form of art.

First experience in the treatment of the film Tsekanovskii was the revival of "Mail" (1928). This cartoon brought him international fame. It was made in the technique of flat puppets, hinged, phase of the movement which were laid directly in front of the lens. Conventional angular and mechanistic figures of postmen, which are inevitable with this method of tasovac, was not a disadvantage, and the specifics of artistic language. Formal features of this and other films Tsekanovskii (for example, the unfinished "Tale of the priest" by Pushkin) echo the overall world art 20-ies of orientation on the mechanical quality of the movement, comes to makenote, in such seemingly unrelated phenomena as the cubist-constructivist painting or artistic image of Charlie Chaplin.

In 1930 there appeared the voiced variant of "Mail". To achieve a synthesis of sound and image Tsehanovsky decided to fit the footage to a previously recorded soundtrack. In accordance with the sound structure of music and text, he has built a visual outline. As a result, Tsekhanovsky wrote in the article "the Specifics of tonfilm", turned "art, where for the first time in history, the meeting of music and fine arts". This technique later became one of the leading ways to create sound animation.

After "Mail" in front of Tsehanovsky opened up new horizons for art - "sounding, dinamizadores painting." He always thought himself an artist, but the creative task took him beyond what could give the paper and paint. In the most vivid form Tsehanovsky showed himself an artist synthetic type of film "Pacific 231" symphonic poem about the locomotive. It was an art experiment in artistic interactions of image and sound. Music by A. Honegger served as a mounting axis for visual images of three types - field image of the engine and its parts, the conductor and musicians, some large plans of the orchestra - swelling of the cheeks, fluttering bows, etc It was actually the first attempt of kinoindustrii symphonic music. Around the world of another locomotive Cebanovschi aroused great interest and recognition. Serious art magazines were devoted to this work of thorough analysis.

After the war, the artist worked in Moscow. His cartoons have repeatedly won awards at international festivals.

Used materials article E. Steiner in the book: 1989. A hundred anniversaries. Art calendar. Annual illustrated edition. M. 1988.

Literature:

Kuznetsov E. D. Tsehanovsky L., 1973

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