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Boris
Viktorovich Shergin

Russia 
1893−1973
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Born on July 28 (July 16 St. S.)1893 (according to the archives; specifying the Shergin in 1896 — the hoax). Father Shergin, a hereditary sailor and shipwright, gave the son a gift for storytelling and passion to every "art"; his mother — native arhangelogorodsky, acquainted him with folk poetry of the Russian North ("Mother mistress was to tell... like pearls, her catalasa word of mouth"). In the family Shergin took the first important lessons of the relationship with the world and people, the labour code of honor North of the Russian people. From childhood learned moral way, the life and culture of Pomerania. Drew ornaments and headpieces of ancient books, learned to paint icons in Pomeranian style, painted utensils; during his school years began to collect and record the Northern folk tales, epics, songs. He studied at the Arkhangelsk provincial men's gymnasium (1903-1912); graduated from the Central Stroganov school of industrial art (1917). Worked as a painter-restorer, was in charge of the artistic part of the craft workshop, contributed to the revival of the Northern fisheries (in particular, equipment Kholmogory bone carving), was engaged in archaeological work (collected books "ancient letters", an ancient sailing, a notebook skippers, albums, poems, books).

In 1922 moved to Moscow; worked at the Institute of children's reading education, were stories about the folk culture of the North with the performance of fairy tales and legends before a variety of mainly children's, audience. Since 1934 — in a professional literary work. First published essay "fleeing beauty" the concert of M. D. Krivopolenova (the newspaper "Arkhangelsk". 1915. November 21). The writer has published 9 books (not counting reprints). In Newspapers and magazines Shergin put articles of literary and artistic character, at least — of a literary work.

Shergin-the storyteller and the storyteller was formed and became known before Shergin-writer. His first book "the Arkhangelsk city, the ship of refuge" (1924) are made of record six Arkhangelsk starin with the notation of the melodies, hum the mother (and were included in the repertoire of the performances of the Shergin).

The stark transition from the solemn and sad starin shengenskogo the first collector to the rough and mischievous humor "Shisha Moscow" (1930) — "mummer's epic about the pranks on the rich and powerful". Adventurous, witty stories, rich language, a grotesque caricature of representatives of the social upper link picaresque cycle Shergin with the poetics of folk satire.

In the third book — "the Arkhangelsk short stories" (1936), recreating the mores staromoskovskogo Arkhangelsk, Shergin appears as a subtle psychologist and the writer of Genesis. Novels collection, styled in popular taste translated "history" XVII-XVIII centuries, dedicated to the wandering in Samaria and "priestly" love the characters from the merchant environment. The first three books Shergin (decorated by the author himself in the "coastal style") are in full folk repertoire of the Arkhangelsk region. History of Pomerania, mediated in the first three books Shergin through art, eloquence, life, appears in its direct form in his next collection — "song of the rivers" (1939). In this book the North of Russia appears as a special cultural-historical region, played a significant role in the fate of the country and occupies a unique place in the culture. Subsequent "Sborniki" Shergin expand and clarify the image.

Post-war book "Povrsina-corbelin" (1947), he Shergin called his "repertory book": it brings together the works which he performed during the war years in hospitals and military units, clubs, and schools. The fate of this collection is tragic: he was subjected to vulgar-sociological processing and called derogatory criticism from folklorists as the "rough stylization and distortion of folk poetry". The name of the writer has been discredited, and he himself is doomed to a decade of isolation from the reader.

Breaking the wall of silence around Shergin helped organized in 1955 creative evening of the writer in the Central House of writers, after which the publishing house "Children's literature" was published in the collection "the Pomeranian was and tales" (1957), and after some time came out and the "adult" collection of selected works "Ocean — the sea Russian" (1959). The collection caused a lot of rave reviews; special attention of the reviewers were drawn to the verbal skill of the writer. Deserved recognition came to Sergio after high assessment of his work in the article by L. M. Leonov ("Izvestia". 1959. July 3).

The originality of folklorism Shergin is under the direct guidance of the texts on folk art. The goal of the artist is not to enrich the literature through vnepolozhennost to her folklore, but to reveal the people's poetry as original, unique and precious way of seeing the world and of man. In the texts of the writer — abundance of quotations from folklore (Proverbs, sayings, passages from epics, lamentations, lyrical songs, Nabiullin, etc.). Most of them are designed for reading aloud, and Shergin, who knew all his prose and poetry by heart, until the last years of his life he often performed his works. Skatyvanie for him was not playing previously created, but the very process of creativity. Died writer October 30, 1973 in Moscow.

According to the article: A. Kharitonov Institute of Russian Civilization.

16 (28) July 2003 marks 110 years since the birth, and October 31, 2003 - 30 years since the death of Boris Viktorovich Shergin is a unique, one of a kind Russian writer, whose true greatness begins to sink in only now.

Boris Shergin with good reason, emphasized: "my Parent was an ancient family. Our great-grandparents mentioned in many documents of Great Ustyug and Salt Vychegda". Indeed, the kind Serging was well known in Veliky lands. J. M. Shulman, carefully studying the pedigree of Boris Shergin, said that his ancestral origins date back to the remotest antiquity, and most representatives of this kind - "not stately, and not serving, but still very visible in people's stories of the North" - were priests. The founder of "the genealogical branches leading directly to Boris Shergina", J. M. Shulman calls Ivan Shergin, the son of Ustiug priest and the founder of the dynasty Serging-stalepromyshlennaya. However, the life of the parents of Boris Shergin, and his own childhood and adolescence were associated with a Town (so - from capital letter, often without naming, referred to in the diaries Shergin dear to his heart Arkhangelsk): "In 1865, after the death of my grandfather, my grandmother left his homeland forever and moved to the City to the sea. The sea he began working his father's life. Almost all his life he sailed on the Murmansk steamships. And my mother's ancestors (and my grandfather by mother) age served at the Admiralty shipyards". The Shergin family on his mother --nee Stanovskoy - indigenous Pomors. Great-grandfather of the writer Mikhail Starovsky, "the sailing master of arts", moved to Solombala from the shores of the White sea. His son Michael was the "sailing master of the 3rd class" and the owner of a workshop for the manufacture of sails.

When Boris was born, his father, Viktor, was forty-three years. Serging the family lived in a small house on Kirochnaya street (now Karl Marx) near its intersection with the St. Petersburg (now University) Avenue. Memories about the relationship between the parents about the attitude of the children about her home leave forever in the soul of Boris Shergina the feeling of complete and perfect happiness. A life full of love to each other, the righteous works, Hobbies "art" ever becomes a standard of life.

The love of art of the North in all its diverse manifestations of folk creativity and Pomeranian "literacy", icon painting and folk painting on wood, to music and word, to all the rich folk culture originated in the future, the writer here, in the home. His mother, who "the people sang songs while at home or in a boat where one would go - everything sings", her friend, Pomorski-solombalka, guardian of the North the richest folklore traditions, the father, was fond of making models of ships, his fellow sailors that sing songs - "azhno the dishes in the cupboard rings", Paphnutius Osipovich Ankudinov, who knew "the voice of a dozen of the old days-epics", gave the young Boris Shergina the opportunity to learn from the wealth of folk speech and folk art in a very direct way - from mouth to mouth and from hand to hand.

He studied the future writer in the Arkhangelsk provincial men's gymnasium, received in 1911 the name of M. V. Lomonosov. In his autobiography, Shergin has the following lines: "As a student of the Arkhangelsk school, I made a notebook in the format of books and the printed letters were written to the memory that seemed to me curious. Were straining to decorate these "books" and handwritten drawings. ...Brush, paint, chisel, every tool for woodcarving and became my passion. In addition to the ships, I did model the Northern churches; utensils in the Northern style. A passion for folk, original art took me to Moscow, at the Stroganov art school". A student at the oldest art educational institutions of Russia - the Central Stroganov school of industrial art - Boris Shergin began in 1913 and have never regretted about the made choice. "As the holiday reminded me of our years spent in Moscow, at the Stroganov school. Talented teachers-artists, such as S. S. Golosov, S. V. Noakovsky, p. P. Pashkov spark the love of art knew how to fan the flames. ...Emotional how much fun we have received from our trips to Abramtsevo, Sergiev Posad, Khotkovo, in Bogorodskoye. We know that there has been a revival of folk art," wrote Shergin's story "Victor-citizen". In this story, there are these lines: "Russia, Moscow has become my second homeland." In 1913 he begins to "share life" between Moscow and the North, coming home only for the holidays.. This period of life Shergin was probably the main time of the formation of his artistic identity, the formation of the creative person. He really deeply and fully realized the significance of popular culture and felt the urgent need to do everything in his power to not to die "off beauty."

In Moscow Shergin noticed. Appreciated not only his ability as a painter, but also a perfect knowledge of people's words, the ability to sing the epics, the talent of the storyteller. In 1915, the student stroganoves acquainted with the amazing Pinega by storyteller, Maria Dmitrievna Krivopolenova, which was brought to Moscow folklorista O. E. Ozarovsky. In the same year in the newspaper "Arkhangelsk", an article appeared Shergin "Off-beauty", which tells about the performance of Krivopolenova at the Polytechnic Museum and the impression which it produced upon the audience.

Met Boris Shergin and well-known scientists-folklorists the brothers Boris and Yuri Sokolovym, and in 1916, on the instructions of A. A. Shakhmatov, sent an expedition to record the dialect and folklore in the Shenkursk district of the Arkhangelsk province.

After graduating from College, where Shergin worked in the pictorial and decorative, printed cloth, wood carving and enamel workshops, he returned to Arkhangelsk, and from 1917 to 1919 works in the Archangel society for the study of the Russian North, and then in handicraft and art workshops.

In 1922, Boris Viktorovich moves to Moscow and becomes a member of the Institute of children's reading education. In 1924 he published his first book - "the Arkhangelsk city, the ship of refuge", decorated by him. This book containing his own works of the author, and recording the texts and tunes of Northern folk ballads, Shergin says his artistic credo: to devote his life to works of oral folk poetry "our stories" "into the Scriptures" in order to continue living tradition Northern culture, the continuer and the Keeper which he himself felt. Half-century after the release of the first book Shergin Yury Shulman writes: "Already in the first book, in an effort to preserve and capture the live completeness of folk art... Shergin, in fact, shifts, and transforms the original antiquity, according to their own laws of beauty, enhancing the poetic impression of "sparkling" people words quick notes of the recitative, as well as the author, unmatched in elegance and "light chime" artistic illustrations, concealing the genuine flavor of ancient art. Triple the talent of author, storyteller, writer, artist paint brush, emitted by a book, created her amazing integrity and a rare authenticity".

After the release of the second book - the collection of fairy tales "shish Moscow" (1930) - Boris Shergin becomes a member of the Union of writers, working as part of the organizing Committee and was elected a delegate to the First all-Union Congress of Soviet writers, held in the capital in 1934. The same year he goes on a professional literary work. He is a frequent speaker in various classrooms with the oral performance of the folk tales, epics, ballads and their own written works based on folk sources, and impressed by the stories of fellow countrymen-coast-dwellers, or memoirs of childhood and youth years spent in Arkhangelsk. One after another published a collection of his works - "the Arkhangelsk short stories" (1936), "song of the rivers" (1939), "Povrsina-corbelin" (1947).

The last of these books, published in the heyday of talent Shergin, was released shortly after the release of the infamous decrees of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b) on the magazines "Zvezda" and "Leningrad", the movie "Big life", etc., which marked the beginning of unprecedented government campaign of strangulation art. "Povrsina-corbelin" suffered a crushing defeat from the official critics. Shergin was accused of love to the old Pomeranian life, conservatism, lack of connections with the present. Traditional Pomor way of life reflected in the pages of the book, its entire structure and meaning in conflict with the ideas of aspiration to a classless and godless international future. And critics scared: suddenly the modern reader's life, which the characters live Shergin, true spiritual values of their grandfathers and great grandfathers, seem too attractive, much more attractive than the drawings of the faceless society of the future?

Only ten years later, in 1957, the true connoisseurs of the writer managed to achieve publication of the latest book by Boris Shergin - "the Pomeranian was and legends", published in "Detgiz" with illustrations by famous graph of V. Favorsky. In 1959, appearing one of the most comprehensive collections of works by Boris Shergin - the "Ocean sea Russian", and in 1967 - the full of his lifetime editions - "Sealed glory."

For the first time in the homeland of Boris Viktorovich, in Arkhangelsk, a collection of his works, dubbed "Gandvik - icy sea" was released in 1971...

In the late 1870s - early 1980s Shergin books were published in Moscow and Arkhangelsk quite often and in large quantities. But in recent decades, commercialization of the publishing process has led to the fact that the output of such collections has become almost impossible. Meanwhile, waiting in the wings prepared to publish the diaries of Boris Shergin is a truly precious records that reveal to us the hidden spiritual wealth of the writer. What kind of joy are a modern person, these diaries, as they are able to strengthen and enrich it, you can see, getting acquainted with their texts for publications in magazines "the Word" (1990) and "Moscow" (1994). The uniqueness Shergin, the uniqueness of his work that he managed organically to combine, to merge two artistic systems - literature and folklore, to give folk the word new life in the book, and literature to enrich the treasure of folk culture. Books by Boris Shergin today as ever relevant and contemporary, even topical, since at the time of the loss of ideas about the spiritual and cultural values bequeathed to us by forefathers, they return us to those values, instruct, delight, and enrich. Not only the accuracy of the depicted and "a good knowledge of Pomeranian life" that put the writer in the merit reviewers, valuable works Shergin. He shows the reader a life of great meaning, a life based on impeccable moral principles. In 1979 Viktor Kalugin wrote: "the more you read into this a kind of Pomeranian chronicle, written by our contemporary, the more convinced I am: not past, but present and future belongs to her." Think it's time Shergin it. 2003 noted in the Arkhangelsk region as "the year Shergin". In October it is planned to conduct the international scientific conference dedicated to the writer; magazine "Dvina" announced a competition of short stories "Krasnopillia the word", dedicated to 110 anniversary since the birth of the Shergin, and Committee of education of administration of the Arkhangelsk region - a high school essay contest; children's regional library. A. P. Gaidar regional branch of the Union of writers of Russia organize "Small serginskiy reading" with participation of schoolchildren of Arkhangelsk and the competition of family manuscripts, "Arkhangelsk city", Regional scientific library named after N.. SWC is preparing a book exhibition and holds the regional competition of activities designed to attract the attention of northerners to the heritage Shergin.

(E. S. Galimova)

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