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Nicolas Poussin (1594, Les Adele, Normandy 1665, Rome) — the greatest French painter, the founder of classicism. Among painters of the XIV century it is one of the most significant, the influence of which on the further development of art cannot be overemphasized.
Parents gave Poussin a good education: there is evidence that in his childhood he studied in Rouen, the Jesuits, then Nicola was trained at Quentin Warren. This, in General, quite ordinary painter came to the province for painting the Church. Skill capital artist made a great impression on the young provincial Poussin, and he began to take lessons from Varena. At the age of 18 Nicola went to Paris, where for some time he studied at George Lallementpainter-historian and the master of portrait painting Ferdinand van Ella.

The greatest influence on the work of Poussin, as well as on the formation of Nicola as the greatest artist had a trip to Rome. There he received the necessary knowledge and inspired by the work of geniuses of the Renaissance.

Features of the artist Nicolas Poussinhis works are strictly subordinated to the ideas of rationalism, which are the basis for classical direction in painting. The greatest interest for the artist represented the scenes on mythological, historical and biblical themes. Following the canons of ancient art and art of the Renaissance in his paintings of Nicolas Poussin tried to avoid all the excess composite of his work is impeccable, every detail is in its place and fulfills a clearly defined role. Stay in Rome has left its mark on the style image of chiaroscuro landscapes of Poussin filled with soft warm light, to see that and capture it on the canvas only in Italy.

As for the color scheme, for creation of Nicolas Poussin's characteristic deep strong tone, and the arrangement of the color groups is left to chance. In addition, Poussin first to appreciate the artistic value of the use of local light and widely used this technique in their works. Further artistic techniques of the painter came to be considered the reference was borrowed by the Academy of France to develop a set of rules and norms characteristic of academic art.

The most famous painting by Poussin: "The Triumph Of Flora", "The Death Of Germanicus", "The inspiration of the poet""Death Of Christ", "Holy family on the stairs", "Parnas". For the last period of the artist's characteristic paintings depicting scenes from mythology or literature. The famous landscapes by Nicolas Poussin that time can be attributed "Landscape with two nymphs", "Four seasons", "Rest on the flight into Egypt". Meaningful work is the work "The martyrdom of Saint Erasmus"it was written for St. Peter's Cathedral, the main Catholic Church.

The paintings of Poussin: the outstanding works of different years

While studying in Paris, Nicola quickly realized that here he was, in fact, only one source of inspiration — the Louvre. Very good for a novice painter, but it was not enough. At that time the creative centre of the world was considered to be Rome, which tried to get the painters from different countries.

Poussin made several attempts to go there, the first and the second of which was not successful. Go to the path and when they reached Florence, the artist is forced back to France, and later, when he again came in the way, he was detained by work in Lyon. Here was established one of the famous paintings of Poussin, long considered lost — "Death of the virgin Mary". It can be called the most important work of Nikola the time ordered by the Archbishop of Paris to Notre Dame Cathedral.

The third trip was successful: in 1624, the artist went to Rome and stayed there for 20 years. At that time Nicolas Poussin created works on themes from mythology, studied the works ofda Vinci and Durerwas fond of poetry. His work of that period had a huge impact sculptures, paintings and drawings Titian, Carracci,Rafael and unparalleled among the artists of the Renaissance master image of the human body by Michelangelo.

Thanks to his contacts in Rome, Poussin had acquired a useful familiarity with the cardinal Barberini. His order, the picture "the Destruction of Jerusalem", was the first serious work of the painter in Italy. Unfortunately, the original of this work is not preserved: the second option at the moment is in the Vienna Museum of art history.

Among other famous paintings from these years can be called "The Death Of Germanicus"that is a milestone for classicism as directions. The clarity of the composition, the rationality of the subjects and mild flavor are the main features of the works written by Poussin in Rome. They're most clearly characterizes his work in General and the thoughts and ideas that the artist wanted to convey to the viewer.

The next period in the biography of Nicolas Poussin was much shorter: after Rome, he returned to France and stayed there for only two years. However, this time was well spent. In Paris, he came at the request Suble de Noia, the then superintendent of buildings of the king, and became the first painter of the court. Artwork by Nicolas Poussin for the chapel in the Palace of Saint-Germain was commissioned at the personal request of king Louis XIII, he was later purchased for a private collection picture "manna from Heaven".

In Paris, the master was extremely successful. He had a lot of orders, but here he has acquired a lot of enemies. At the court lacked dissatisfied with Poussin and his works of artists who are desperately intrigued against him without the support of the Queen Anne of Austria. This situation did not suit Nicola: in 1642, he left France with a promise to return, however, the death of cardinal Richelieu, and later the king freed him from all obligations.

Poussin went to Rome, where he was much more comfortable, because there he was under the patronage of influential people: the cardinal Barberini and patron of dal-Pozzo. Here Nicola quietly working in familiar surroundings, inspired by your favorite masterpieces and geniuses of the past. It is no longer taken for grandiose orders and writes medium-sized picture.

Among the famous works of Nicolas Poussin this period is dominated by landscapes and works on the biblical stories and the myths of antiquity. At this time it is written "Landscape with Diogenes", "The ecstasy of St Paul"series "Seven sacraments" and "the seasons". This time it was the most fruitful in the life of the artist, and his skill reached its highest point. The heroes of his ideal and artistic point of view, and in relation to their human qualities — dedication, patriotism, sacrifice. For paintings of Nicolas Poussin, with those names, exhaustively describing the plot, characterized by the harmony and perfect precision of drawing. Excellent composition, sharpness of separation of the plans using colors and shapes helped create on the canvas of the image of the ideal world in which everything is subordinated to logic and reason.

In 1664, the artist suffered a great grief — his wife died. The same date is on the last remaining unfinished work "Apollo and Daphne"subsequently purchased by the Louvre. Died brilliant painter, a year after his wife's death, in September, 1665.
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