Emmanuel de

Netherlands • 1617−1692

In 1636 was passed in Alkmaar Guild of St. Luke. Worked in Rotterdam, Delft, 1651 moved to Amsterdam. Lost his wife, in 1655 married again. My wife and her adult daughter from his first marriage was in 1659 convicted of theft. Pregnant wife were banished from the city, in 1663, she died — presumably from the plague.

He Witte extremes in behavior, was a gambler, a bully (we know about the fight with Gerard de Larissa), and then go into debt, constantly changed his place of residence, tore up contracts with merchants painting. After the break with another lender hanged himself on a winter night city bridge, the rope broke, the body fell into the canal and was discovered only few weeks in the spring.

The name Emanuel de Witte, associated with the picturesque school of Delft, acquired in the second half of the XVI century, during the Dutch war for independence major political and economic importance.

The largest master of this school was Jan Vermeer (Delft), beside him are the names of Pieter de Hooch and CAREL Fabricius.

Emanuel de Witte was born in Alkmar, in the family of a school teacher. He received a good education and, as the researchers note, in the early years were distinguished by freedom of thought.

Life de Witte did not agree to compromise in his work, did not meet the tastes of the patrician society, was hard. The artist could not find buyers for his works, and various enterprising business men, taking advantage of his plight, he received what he was doing, giving him the table and the dwelling. E. de Witte repeatedly took them through lawsuits, and finally expelled the host of a winter night on the street, committed suicide.

We know little that is factual material on the life and work of the artist. We don't know where and from whom he studied. We only know that all his youth he spent in his native city of Alkmar, then for two years he lived in Rotterdam (1639-1640), and in 1642 appeared in Delft. It is possible that his teacher at home was Caesar van Everdingen trying to combine caravaggesque and academic traditions. This is confirmed by the early paintings of de Witte — "Danae" (1641) and "Vertumnus and Pomona" (1644). A strong academic influence, and only soft lighting reminiscent of the later works of the artist. Close to them, and recently found portraits of de Witt, where, however, clearly appear realistic grounds.

At the turn of the 40-ies—50-ies the artist painted several genre pictures in which the action takes place under the candle light. At the same time in his work there is the theme, which became for him a major — spacious, sunlit Church interiors. The first of these, held in a private collection in London, dated 1651 year. These architectural interiors with human figures, the space and light interact, creating a kind of emotional atmosphere. Numerous Church interiors of the de Witte was famous throughout the Netherlands.

In 1654, the artist moved from Delft to Amsterdam, where he lived until his death. It is possible that the life of a big noisy city worked on to expand the subject matter of his work ("Church interior", "the New Church in Amsterdam", 1656; "the woman at the harpsichord", etc.).

60-ies —the heyday of creativity de Witte; at this time he began to write the fish markets, constitute the second large thematic series of his works. In the earliest of these figures are still somewhat externally combined with the background ("Fish market", Amsterdam). In the "Fish market" from the National gallery in London, the artist has largely failed to convey the dynamics of life, although there is no complete unity between man and his environment. The next stage of development embodied in the "Market at the port" State Museum of fine arts. Of A. S. Pushkin. It is most clearly expressed democratic public beginning. People here are organically living in an urban environment.

One of the latest paintings from the series "Markets" written in 1679. The human figure has decreased, got back in, the space became more withdrawn and passive, mellowed flavor, has disappeared contrasts, dominated by bluish-grey tones.

Emanuel de Witte sought to recreate in Dutch painting folk genre that carries social significance. This desire makes the master one of the most advanced, original art Holland XVII century.

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