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China 
1020−1090
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Guo XI (born about 1020 — died about 1090), Chinese painter, landscape painter and art theorist. Has created a number of magnificent, rugged mountain scenery, made clear the line (only one black ink), carefully transferred items ("Mountains in autumn after the rain", Freer Gallery, Washington; "a Secluded valley", Stedelijk Museum, Shanghai; "Spring snow in the mountains Guan", 1072, "Village high on a mountain" — both in the Palace Museum, Beijing). In the treatise on painting, which was completed and published by his son Th Ssy, Guo XI demanded profound study of nature and formulated the basic laws of construction of space and perspective in Chinese painting.

Guo XI (Chinese. 郭熙; approx. 1020 – 1090 approx.) is a Chinese artist (sung dynasty)

Guo XI, the best Chinese landscape painter of the XI century, entered into art history as the finisher of tradition of monumental monochrome landscape coming from his predecessors – Li Cheng, fan Kuan, jeou of the Ran.

About the artist's life, there isn't much information. His contemporary, the Chinese theorist and critic of painting Th Josui in his treatise "notes on the painting: seen and heard" from 1082 reports the following about him: "Guo XI, a native of Wen in Heane. Currently holds the post of issue in the Imperial office shuyuan edition. Paints landscapes of a winter forest. Shows how mastery and variety and depth in the composition. Although he is constantly studying Ying-Qiu (another name is Li Cheng), and admires them, but can Express own feelings. Huge screens and high walls (his paintings) are much stronger (than the predecessors). In the current generation (of artists) he is the one. [In the beginning of the reign of Sy-NIN received an Imperial order to paint a cover for the small hall. He painted the Central leaf, Li Zong-Cheng and Fu Tao-Yin painted side. Everyone tried to the end (to Express) the secret, however, Mr. Fu was lucky that his partners were and Whether.]"

Other ancient sources confirm that Guo si studied with Lee Cheng, has surpassed him, he created his own style, and most were fluent brush. Painting the walls of the palaces, he created huge landscapes made one with black ink. This special, traditional Chinese painting technique requires great skill in execution, the possession of different caliber brushes, different ink. It also requires a perfect stroke because the superimposed ink can't already be corrected. Good, made one black ink landscape in the same way not inferior to the landscape colored in a brilliantly executed drawings of some of the European masters of the XVI—XVIII centuries are often better than many of their own paintings. Guo si has absorbed all the technical skills of his predecessors, and brought the art of landscape to a new level.

His career, the artist began during the reign of Emperor Jansson (1022-1063). Information about his early works are not available, historical evidence find Guo si already in the rank of issue. Probably he became Director of the Imperial Department of painting (Academy of the Hanlin) to 1060х years, and quite deservedly, because he stood out among the painters and as a practitioner and as a theorist and as a teacher, preaching a new approach to painting. In addition, Guo si was a member of the Department of calligraphy, having in him the rank of daijo[1].

The first major work the artist created in the Imperial Palace, painting monumental landscapes screens and partition walls. In 1068, during the reign of Sonictune (1067-1085) of the Palace, Saadani the artist paints the Central part of the three-sided screen the story of the acts of the Emperor made during his lifetime (the side doors were painted by Li Zong-Cheng and Fu Tao-Yin). Along with his colleague Cui Bo, Guo si became the personal painter of the Emperor Sanitsuda, not just carrying out his orders, but in works reflecting the tastes and preferences of his patron. Experts say that the flavors of this enlightened Emperor was wider, richer and more varied than his eleventh son of the Emperor-artist Huizong (1100-1126), who came to power 15 years after his father's death. In his treatise "Notes on high the essence of forests and streams" Guo si writes that the contemplation of wild springs and rocks — ordinary pleasure for the perfect man. The Emperor Canizzano was hardly able to often contemplate the wildlife alone — this prevented the employment of public Affairs, and rare outings was accompanied by a large retinue. Understandable as the desire of the Emperor to be the "perfect man" and the role played in this effort which nature landscapes Guo XI.

Guo XI very honored Lee Cheng. He studied for his landscapes not only the mastery of the brush, but also the compositional decisions and the construction of space. Not surprisingly, he soon became identified with his master; their names were combined to indicate a special tradition in painting that they had created. "Lee school," became a classic, endorsed by the Emperor kind of landscape, and turned into the official Canon.

In 1080 years after the passing of his son, Guo Si, the examination for a degree, Guo XI painted the walls of the temple of Confucius in the County Wen. The temple was established four landscape compositions, monumental and majestic, which the artist was particularly proud. Decorative-monumental painting was created by Guo XI in many other temples, and at the Department of painting. The poet su Have devoted to the monumental landscapes of his poems, in which he wrote that "...in the Hall of Jasper, lying against the paintings of Guo XI, feel like among the green forest...".

In 1078-1085 years, Guo XI has created in one of the Taoist temples 12 monumental landscapes, each with a height of about 7 meters. According to the description its very knowledgeable contemporary of Juan the Shanga, on the walls of the temple were sealed with the grandiose and magnificent landscapes with mountains, rivers and waterfalls. In 1087 Juan the Shanga devoted to the works of Guo XI poetry, in which he noted "a sharp eye" of an artist; despite his advanced age, the master still had, playing with a brush, pass the light. Many heartfelt lines devoted to the artist by the famous poet su Shi in his poetry to his painting "Autumn mountain".

Researchers of creativity of Guo si believed that it is up to the end of life actively worked in the Department of painting. However, after the death of the master, came to power the Emperor Hoatson (1100-1126), who himself was an outstanding artist. His new tastes and ideas of painting the "old-fashioned" works of Guo si did not match, so the vast majority of works by this outstanding master are primarily decorative-monumental painting was sabeline, and most of the scrolls destroyed. Who lived in the XII century Dan Chun, author of "Notes on painting" reports that in the early XII century landscapes Guo XI out of fashion, art became intimate, preference was given to the artists who wrote the flowers and birds. One of the scrolls Guo si was just a table, and the work of the artist, first adorned the Palace were replaced with new. Father Dan Chun asked him to pay paintings, Guo XI, and received the Royal permission. However, as time passed, things changed again, and the work of a remarkable landscape painter of the song dynasty was again highly appreciated.

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