Italia • 1430−1515

Vincenzo Foppa (Italian. Vincenzo Foppa; around 1430-1515, Brescia) is an Italian artist, founder of the Lombard school of painting. One of the largest works are the frescoes in the Portinari chapel in the Church of Eustorgio in Milan.

The leading artist of Lombardy before the arrival of Leonardo da Vinci in Milan. Worked mainly in Milan, whose rulers chose the works in the old Gothic style. According to Vasari, he studied at Padua, together with Mantegna. In his works combined the features of late Gothic and the influence of humanistic culture. In the fresco cycle of the Portinari chapel in the Church of Sant'eustorgio (1468) Foppa introduced a landscape background and have demonstrated knowledge of the laws of perspective. Rejecting the decorative, Foppa turned in the direction of drama and truthfulness of the image — these features will be typical of Lombard painting. The frescoes of Sant'eustorgio became the top of the Lombard Renaissance art of the period.

FOPPA Vincenzo Foppa, Vincenzo

(approx. 1427/1430, Brescia - approx. 1515/1516, ibid.). The Italian artist.

Foppa is the most important representative of the Lombard Renaissance, to which he gave its special character preserved and during the XVI century.

"Madonna" (CA. 1450-1455, Settignano, Florence, Berenson collection) testifies to the influence of the "international Gothic" and, especially, Michelino da Besozzo, but in this work it is guessed coloristic unity created by the natural lighting. "The crucifixion" (1456, Bergamo, Carrara Academy) is located under a classic arch, shown in perspective, in the spirit of Mantegna, but the landscape background is still full of Gothic capriciousness; Padua influence is combined with echoes of the art of Filippo Lippi and Jacopo Bellini. Two of the Madonna (Milan, Castello Sforzesco), whose composition also reflects the influence of Mantegna, created, probably in the same period. However, a wonderful "St. Jerome" (Bergamo, Accademia Carrara), which are often considered to have been executed soon after the "Crucifixion" is a later work, revealing the artist's period of maturity.

Characteristic Poppy natural light here replaced by an abstract, ambient light, inherent in Florentine painting. "SV. Jerome" refers to the time (1462-1464), when Foppa began work on the frescoes in the Cappella Portinari TS. Of Sant'eustorgio in Milan, finished in 1468. In the lunettes at the top of the walls he depicted four "scenes from the life of St. Peter Martyr"; at the top of the altar is the Dormition of the Theotokos and the Annunciation; above the entrance - "Angels"; on the set of four "Church Fathers" on the sails and eight illusory figures of the Apostles, visible through a circular window. These murals show the transition from the solemn song of Padua, built in the Tuscan the rules of perspective, to a more loose concept from a naturalistic interpretation of space, a concept that would become typical of the Lombard art. The completion of this evolution, "Scenes from the life of St Peter Martyr", performed last. In the forest, where the martyrdom of the Saint, notably the influence of Dutch art, which Foppa could meet during a trip to Genoa in 1461, where the Dutch influence was very great. In those same years, created, probably, "Madonna" (Berlin-Dahlem Museum; Raleigh, North Carolina Museum, Kress collection), which replaced the influence of Mantegna comes the influence of Giovanni Bellini,

The frescoes of the chapel of Averoldi in TS. Carmine in Brescia (1475, "Evangelists" and "Church Fathers"), a large altarpiece ("Madonna surrounded by angels", eight "Saints" in two rows and the "Stigmatization of St. Francis"), written for TS. Santa Maria delle Grazie in Bergamo (now Milan, Pinacoteca Brera), "Christmas" from the TS. in Chiesanuova near Brescia (the flap with "John the Baptist" and "St. The Appolonia" - Geneva, private collection) - all these works are created in the heyday Poppy, which gives its harsh naturalism and a very unique sound. Feeling deeply the interconnection between local muted colors and natural light, it works in the typical grayish tones, emphasizing the sophisticated gold frames these altar paintings. This type of polyptych will be used by all the Lombard masters up to Gaudenzio Ferrari. This type of monumental altarpieces finds its highest embodiment in the "Fornari Polyptych" (1489, Savona, Museum) and the polyptych of the main altar of the Cathedral of the same city (oratory of Santa Maria di Castello). They also indicate the influence Poppy on the painters of nice. In addition, they demonstrated some tendency Poppy to the archaic (they are executed after Foppa became acquainted with Bramante, whose presence in Lombardy is confirmed by the documents from 1477). This effect leads to monumentalism manifested in the murals created for TS. Santamaria di Brera ("Pieta", "the Martyrdom of St. Sebastian"; the "Madonna with the two St. Ioanni", 1485, now Milan, the Pinacoteca di Brera); the splendor of gold was found in "the Annunciation" (Milan, private collection). This period can be attributed to the stained glass, filled with Foppa for the Milan Cathedral (attribution Ragghianti).

In his later works Foppa refuses the lessons of Leonardo ("adoration of the Magi", London, NAT. Gal.; banner Orzinuovi with "Madonna and two saints" on one side and "SV. Sebastian with St. Roch and St. George" on the other, 1514, Brescia, Pinacoteca Martinengo, Toshio; frescoes with "Scenes from the life of Mary" in oratorio in Vigevano). Foppa stays true to the simple and archaic the Lombard tradition, which will be continued in Brescia Moretto and somewhat differently, Savoldo. Thanks to its deep creative consciousness Foppa brought to the art of the Lombard Renaissance humanism, and the interpretation space, as well as interest in luminism, interest, caught by Lombard artists of the next generation.

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