French graphic artist and painter. At the age of four years he showed remarkable artistic talent, and when he was 11 years old, tried his hand at lithography. In 1847 Dora came to study in Paris, and in 1848 signed a contract with the «journal of PUR RIR» («Journal pour rire»). Under this contract, the artist had to provide weekly one lithograph. Woodcuts to Gargantua and Pantagruel Rabelais (1854) and Naughty stories (1855) Balzac brought him fame. Dore illustrated many other works such as the Eternal Jew (1856) by eugène sue, Hell (1861), Dante, don Quixote of Cervantes, Paradise Lost (1866) Milton. Widely known for his illustrations of the Bible (1856). Dora died on 23 January 1883.
«The great Dore», «the greatest Illustrator of the nineteenth century» — so called artist work, researchers. L. R. Warsaw writes: «In the history of the illustrations of Gustave doré is an exceptional place. An outstanding representative of not only French, but also of the entire European art of the second half of the nineteenth century, he contributed to the Treasury of world graphics of unsurpassed artistic value of the drawings, showing deep penetration into the essence of phenomena, to reflect the various aspects of life in contemporary society, all classes and social groups».
Paul Gustave doré born January 6, 1832 in Strasbourg. The Declaration of the city hall from 9 Jan 1832 meant that Pierre Louis Christophe doré was born a son, named Louis August Gustave. Father Dore was an engineer, a Builder of bridges. He loved to read, and the boy had the opportunity to view the illustrations. This greatly aroused his attraction to drawing.
Very early Gustave was to surprise everyone with his childish, almost professional pictures. He started drawing at four years and at the age of ten he completed the illustrations for «the divine Comedy» by Dante.
In 1841 the family moved to Bourg, a town surrounded by rich nature. Later, the artist writes: «These spectacles were one of my first live impressions. They were those strong impulses that formed my taste.»
In 1847 Dora with her mother once again moved, this time to Paris, where Gustave is determined at the lycée Charlemagne. Here he received a good education. Here he finds friends, who later became known to the people of Abu Edmond (writer), Hippolytus of Ten (historian and art theorist).
Barely settled in the capital, Gustave is sent to the chief editor of «journal of PUR RIR» sh Filipino with a series of drawings «the labors of Hercules». Filipon takes it to the number of employees with a salary of 5000 francs per year.
Not having received formal art education, Gustav spent much time in the halls of the Louvre, studying the old master paintings and often worked in the National library, where for a long time considered old engravings.
A great event in the life of a young artist happened at the end of 1847, when Aubert published a book of his lithographs «labours of Hercules». In the Preface he wrote: «the"labours of Hercules» conceived, executed and lithographed by the artist of fifteen, who learned to draw without a teacher, and classical studies. We decided to report it not only to be of particular public interest in the works of the young master, but also to celebrate the beginning of the journey of Mr. Dore, which we believe it will reach amazing heights in art."
At sixteen, Gustave was in the midst of the tumultuous events of the February revolution of 1848. «Dora was at that age, when such great events have a profound impact on an impressionable nature, writes the biographer of the artist B. Roosevelt. — He studied these pulsating masses of the people, and with your imagination turned them into a grander picture. Day and night he was on the streets of Paris, silently watching every episode of the struggle».
Dora draws the sheets: «Louis-Philippe ex-king of puppets» and «Organizational Council of the National guard," quickly became popular.
Gustave becomes the youngest member of the Salon of 1848 with a series of drawings «New Belisarius», «Union is strength» and «scenes from the life drunks.» Since then, Dora almost annually participates in exhibitions of the Salon, exhibiting a picturesque, sculptural and graphic works.
In 1852 Dora suddenly broke with the magazine to devote himself to illustration. He begins with modest work on the design of small and cheap popular publications. The inquiring artist find his way. Already in the illustrations for «Gargantua and Pantagruel» (1854) Dora shows himself an artist of a powerful imagination, skillfully embodying it gave rise to the idea in a concrete image.
Writes L. A. Diakov: «the Images created by Dore, national in nature. Gargantua and Pantagruel in the illustrations of doré are perceived as full participants in national life, they naturally «fit» in the crowd of people, interiors, nature. And all this in accordance with the people’s understanding of the characters as real people…
Brilliant Dore illustrations for «Gargantua and Pantagruel» was the beginning of a new type of picture book, where the images are inextricably merge with the text and freely alternating large and small images. Here were found a happy harmony between the literary and illustrative part. Thus the artist, not denying themselves the right to creative fiction, seeks to convey the unique features of imagery of the work».
1854 for Dora was not only fruitful, but also decisive. This year appears the album of lithographs doré «Paris zoo». G. Hartlaub notes. «Gorgeous leaves with their free self-processing of the acquired impressions Daumier detect only already inherent in the then Dora ability pathetic distortion of gesture, costume and landscape, which, in fact, not so much gives these sheets a fun nature, but also brings a tinge of ephemerality. The young man is ripe for the perception of a decisive phenomenon, for him the present, — the phenomenon of Daumier».
In 1855, the artist finishes the drawings for «Naughty stories» by Balzac. «The images created by Dora, convincingly reveal the characters, temperaments and manners of the characters: loving, cunning, suspicion, bigotry, kindness, gluttony, fanatical istuplenno, cheerfulness of temper, — noted L. A. Dyakov. Contemporaries did not believe that the drawings «Naughty stories» was made a young man living in Paris and spending time among the Bohemians on the street of Martyrs».
In the autumn of the same year, doré began to study of Dante to create illustrations to the «divine Comedy». Grand engravings of the artist to «Hell» appeared in 1861, «Purgatory» and «Paradise» were completed in 1869.
Theophile Gautier wrote in the newspaper «the Monitor» in 1861: «there is No other artist that is better than Gustave doré would be able to illustrate Dante. In addition to talent in composition and drawing, he has the visionary view, which is inherent in poets, that know the secrets of Nature. His amazing pencil causes clouds to take vague shape, water — sparkle dark steel sparkle, and the mountains — make a variety of faces. The artist creates an atmosphere of hell: underground mountains and scenery, the gloomy sky, where never the sun. This heavenly climate it conveys with tremendous credibility…»
But the opinion of G. Hartlaub about prints «Hell»: «without a doubt a significant step forward in the development of heroic and pathetic side of the talented artist and along with that often affects us the ability to adapt to large format. Spectacular composition and at the same time genuine ability to the inner vision of space and landscape and sometimes merge together, producing an unusually strong impression.»
«In the 1860-ies «wood engraving began to gain popularity among the public, which soon turned into an obsession. Every author who wrote a book, wanted the Dore illustrated; each publisher, which published the book, sought to produce with illustrations by Dore». According to friend and biographer of the artist B. Jerrold, the number of pictures Dora reached by may 1862, and forty-four thousand» (P. Lacroix).
Dora usually split my day into three parts: the morning was dedicated to the chart, midday — painting, evening — again the chart. Each artist, painter Bordelon, describes his working method: «I saw Gustave earned 10 Grand for one morning. Before him were about twenty boards, he went from one to the other, sketched the figure with a speed and confidence that astonished. In one morning he made twenty splendid drawings. Then he laughed and threw the pencil aside, threw back his head in a special way and told me cheerfully: «Good morning, my friend. This is enough to feed the family throughout the year. You don’t think I deserve a good Breakfast? I swear, I’m hungry just for this amount. Let’s go»».
In 1862, Dore creates illustrations to the «fairy Tales» by Charles Perrault. Sainte-BEUVE, having received this edition of Dore, called it «a gift to the king.» A brilliant critic Paul de Saint-Victor saw in the «Tales of» Perro «naive and alluring masquerade. It seems that you see Oberon in the suit of the Marquis, walking with Titania in the air to take a sedan chair, accompanied by Ariel and puck, dressed as pages».
Masterpieces of improvisation, imagination, wit — drawings for «the Adventures of Baron Munchausen» R. E. Raspe (1863). In 1863, the same year appeared a series of engravings by doré «don Quixote» of Cervantes. It is safe to say that these illustrations are still unsurpassed.
«What a gift! exclaimed T. Gautier, seeing «don Quixote» Dore. — What a wealth of thought, the power, the intuitive depth, some penetration into the heart of different things! What a feeling is real and at the same time chimerical!»
The sixties was the most productive period in the creativity Dora-Illustrator. In 1864 he created illustrations for «the Legend of Croquemitaine», «Captain Castagneto», and in 1865 illustrates two hundred thirty drawings of a two-volume Bible.
L. A. Dyakov wrote:
«Turning to the old Testament, he will give it in terms of ancient cosmism, trying to convey the grandiose processes experienced by humanity at the dawn of civilization. Everything in these sheets is extremely grandiose and cosmic: rearing cliffs, vast valleys, deep gorges, monstrous trees, countless streams of human, a bright flash of light cutting through the darkness, overwhelming in its scope and architecture of ancient temples and palaces.
That’s why «background», «atmosphere» is key, defining moment.
Illustrating the New Testament, Dora more academic and somewhat dry, somewhat constrained and constrains their imagination, although in separate sheets, for example in «Apocalypse», give full rein to your imagination.»
Arrived in the mid-sixties in London Dora was expecting a rapturous reception. The Prince and Princess of Wales invited him for lunch where he was presented to the Queen of England. The life of an artist is quite well. To visit the artist come such notables as Gounod, Meyerbeer, Offenbach, eugène sue, Alexandre Dumas, Victor Hugo, Pauline Viardot, Adelina Patti, Franz Liszt. Large woodblock print the artist’s Studio in the capital of England was swamped with work.
Biographers of the artist note that from 1860 to 1870 Dore devoted much time to painting, and that during this period he easily overcame all technical difficulties of oil painting. In the sixties and the early seventies, there are huge paintings — «Titans» (1866), «the Death of Orpheus» (1869), an allegory about the military in 1871, the «Copper serpent», «the expulsion of the merchants from the temple», «the Dream of Pilate’s wife», «the massacre of the innocents», «the descent from the cross» and other works on biblical and Evangelical scenes. But there were other works: «Gypsy», «Street musicians," «the Monks during the service," exhibited at the Munich exhibition of 1869.
In 1871, the artist creates a brilliant cycle of cartoons «Versailles and Paris," where a sharp and surprising truly captured the characters very succinctly gave a description to deputies of the National Assembly of 1871, the collection of political vampires, the national disgrace and disaster.
Next, Dora creates numerous drawings to two volumes depicting life in London (1872) and Spain (1874). L. R. Warsaw said: «In these drawings he achieves great expressiveness, integrity, reflecting the socio-political life, and reached unprecedented heights. «To see the world, like Balzac," was a favorite phrase and the motto of Dore. In the illustrations depicting life in the capital of old England and original home of Spain, captured by the artist strongly all the way up to the most secret corners of cities and distant villages. Life is shown in its entirety. Much is revealed and the character of the people».
In this regard, we can cite the story of Gerrold: «When we visited Newgate, he asked the jailer, who accompanied us, leave it for a few minutes at the window, through which was visible in the yard wandering around the circle of prisoners. When we got back, we saw that he drew, but his eyes absorbed every detail of the scene. «I'll tell you, Dora turned to the jailer, that is each of those people.» And he pointed to the thief, a forger of documents, the robber on the road, cracker. The jailer was amazed, because the artist accurately identified the «profession» of each of its wards.»
After «London," Dora managed to create only illustrations of the «Furious Roland» of Ariosto (1879). The artist died on 23 January 1883.