Biography and informationEdit
Born into a peasant family. Studied at the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture (1904-1905, 1907-1910), where his teachers were S. V. Ivanov, K. A. Korovin and V. A. Serov, as well as in school sh holloshi in Munich (1906). At various times visited Italy, India, France and the United States. He was a member of the "Itinerants society" (1915) and the Association "Four arts" (from 1925). Originally worked in Saratov (1918-1921) as a stage designer and festive propaganda, then settled in Moscow.
Biography of the artist began in the walls of the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture. His teachers were V. Serov and K. Korovin. Throughout his life Kravchenko turned to painting, and it is a significant part of his artistic heritage. The scenic work is characterized by delicate ornamentation and rich noble colors from neutral tones to rich, saturated color.
But not painting, and graphics becomes an area of artistic creation, in which most fully revealed talent Kravchenko. He was a bold innovator, has created a unique personal language of graphic expression, which allowed us to convey the emotional perception of the world. The graphics, or rather woodcut, brought him worldwide fame, was promoted to the ranks of the great artists of our time.
The first experiments in the graph refer to years when the painting was determined and creative searches of the young artist. Especially carries his etching. In this technique of painting the effects of light and shadow are one of the most important means of artistic expression. "Rome. Ponto Roto, India. Benares", "the Storm on the Volga" refer to 1916. Each sheet Kravchenko retrieves equipment from the wealth of expressive means. Linear subtlety in the detail of the Roman architectural landscape is replaced by the sharp contrast of black and white spots that grow bizarre form of Oriental architecture, Foundation design, energy of stroke convey the elemental power of lightning landscape. Much fruitful work of the artist in the complicated techniques of etching, often using color printing. Known colored etching, printed with five boards - "Venice. St. Mark's square" - made in 1926, after a trip to Italy. Warm tones of yellow, brick-red flowers, shaded soft green, creating a festive flavor ceremonial Palace square.
Woodcut - woodcuts - Kravchenko started in 1919. He stubbornly takes hold of this complex technology itself and in a short time achieves brilliant results. Shortly after returning in 1921 to Moscow, he became one of the leading xylographs. Great success enjoyed his bookplates, elegant graphic miniatures. Each masterfully traced in detail tells about the spiritual interests of the owner, complex story composition is a poetic narration about the personality of bibliophile. Kravchenko was a man of high culture, broad education, a connoisseur and lover of literature, which naturally led him to book illustration. But not only love the book, but the consciousness that published in large numbers beautifully designed book is an educator of artistic taste, introduces the General reader to art and culture. According to the artist, he always had work on the books, close to his spiritual world. It illustrates the works of Dickens, Hugo, Balzac, Zweig, Pushkin, Leonov, and Sholokhov.
A significant achievement of Soviet art began his work to "Lord of the fleas" Hoffmann (1922) and the novel by Gogol "the Portrait" (1923). The world of human passions and dramatic experiences primarily seeks to uncover the artist. Jerky movements convey the characters inner emotion, the mental state of consternation. The energy of the stroke, the rhythmic alternation of black and white, the richness of tonal relations create expressive, artistic images filled with romantic mystery, the profound tragic power. Recognition of the high skill Kravchenko was awarded to him in 1925, the highest award at the International exhibition of decorative arts and industry in Paris.
Kravchenko - Dneprostroy feel the charm of the old culture and at the same time having a wide view of the world, Kravchenko could not see or feel the romance of the new. Gradually, the modern subject becomes the leading in his work. In 1923, he was the first Soviet chooses the theme for their machine prints "the Red Army restores bridge" and "the Red artillery positions". New open threads and look for new means of expression. The elegance of chamber graphs is replaced by the monumentality of the leaves.
The most significant work that reflects modern life, is a series of excellent engravings of "dneprostroy" (1931). It affirms the heroism of labor, reveals the high poetry of the time of industrialization. The artist not only depicts a majestic panorama of the construction, giant structures, but above all conveys your emotion the heroism of the Soviet people. Clear rhythms of black and white strokes reveal design strict forms, the dynamic juxtaposition of dark and light spots bring graphic language, power and energy.
Artworks Kravchenko always attracted by its strong emotional appeal and variety of colors embodied feelings. Many of the drawings of the artist suddenly discover a delicate lyrical feeling. Captivated by the poetic charm, the picture 1927 "the Summer garden. Walkway with marble statues", in which a harmonious existence of two principles - nature and art - becomes the epitome of beauty in the world.
Kravchenko is a great master of drawing. He worked easily, freely, artistically. His manner is peculiar and picturesque softness and strict logic line. A lot of drawings in the creative heritage of the artist: working drawings, sketches, easel works. And his last work of steel drawings-illustrations to the novel by Victor Hugo "Notre Dame Cathedral", completed in 1940.
Before ended the life of A. I. Kravchenko, who generously gave their talent to people. The attractive power of his art lies in the amazing ability to convey his admiration for the beauty of the world, to capture this experience of the viewer and make him partaker of the creative discovery of the world.