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Netherlands • 1619−1688

Born into the family of goldsmith. Between 1637 and 1639 learned from his brother Ya Kalinka in Rotterdam. From 1641 he settled in Amsterdam, where he became the owner of ships of the Amsterdam line. Belonged to the circle of friends of the Rembrandt, influenced his work. Wrote genre, mythological paintings and portraits. However, the most significant creative achievements Konica relate to the field of landscape. In the period of creative growth from the middle. 1650s until the middle. 1660's by developing promising techniques of composition J. van Goyena and, finally, there, created my own panoramic landscape, endowed with an epic sound.

The Dutch painter.

Until 1640 koninck studied with his brother Jacob in Rotterdam and was greatly influenced by Rembrandt. Koninck was not his direct disciple (according to Houbraken), but was close to his circle of followers (in 1641 he married a resident of Rotterdam, Furnerius Cornelia, the niece of Abraham Furnerius, a talented landscape painter and pupil of Rembrandt). From 1641 koninck lives in Amsterdam, where often found with the Rembrandt. Like most contemporary artists, he probably had a second profession as a Navigator between Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

The earliest surviving works of Coninco is a genre, religious or mythological scenes that even suggest a great influence of not only Rembrandt (in the drawings), but also N. Masa, J. Wall ("Orgy", 1654, the Hague, the Museum Brediusa), P. de Blot, A. Brouwer and Rotterdam artists, who painted realistic rural species, such as X. Sorgue ("Seamstress", 1671, St. Petersburg, State. The Hermitage). Portraits Koninki ("Self", 1667, Florence, Uffizi; A "Portrait Of Vondel", 1674, Amsterdam, GOS. Museum) looks rather arbitrary in their imitation of Rembrandt and his pupil F. Beaulieu, and his vision of the world close to the art of Jan de boon. Rude and careless draughtsman, maestria imitating Rembrandt, koninck only in its scenery finds a good accents and shows breadth of vision.

It is in the landscapes, which make up almost half of his heritage, the artist reaches great perfection. His art occupies a special place in the history of Dutch painting of the XVII century and today enjoys a growing popularity. His first known landscapes date back to only 1647 ("Landscape with travelers", London, Victotia and albert Museum) and 1649 ("Landscape with road", new York, Metropolitan Museum). But in them is manifested the originality of panoramic landscape with a long horizon line, interrupted dark (green mass of trees) and light (water or sunlit landscape) spots. Their amazing poetry lies in the deepening and expansion of space. Very few Dutch landscapes create a similar impression of unreality and infinity (koninck could be inspired by the wide landscapes A. de Gelder, arbitrarily using different paintings of the same motif). But the artist seemed embarrassed of their performance, unlike a fantastic virtuoso and X. finally, there, Rembrandt's dreamy, lyrical and harmonious Jacob van rasdale. For Konica characterized by free circulation with an endless horizon, like continuing outside the picture frame. His works are characterized by the same realistic pure green, white, blue, gray tones, lively, sometimes a few splashes of red that appear and the beautiful brown and gold paintings by Rembrandt and finally, there. Art Konica combines the pursuit of the perfect landscape (which in this era spread throughout Europe, especially in Italy and France, in the painting of Claude Lorrain, Poussin and Dughet) and the realistic approach.

The concept of landscape at Konica completes a quest of Dutch painters, starting with E. van de Velde and J. van Goyen who advocated for lowering the horizon line and a large place on the canvas took to the sky; besides, it determines the rotation in painting, 1650s to art more lyrical and Baroque, expressed in the true charm of the space, stretching all the way to the material borders of the picture. And while echoes of this concept can be found in the works of raisdale, executed under the influence of Konenko, I. van der Hagen and Vermeer of Harlem, in the second half of the century it has not received such an extension, as Latinized Pesa.

Among the beautiful landscapes Konica large format (typically 130-140 160-170 x) should be called work that is stored in the State. art Museum in Copenhagen, GOS. Museum in Amsterdam (including acquired in 1967 painting from the collection of the Earl of Derby), the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, Museum Bellmansalen Beuningen in Rotterdam and NAT. Gal. in London. A few late landscapes (Loking house, a collection of Loyd; Amsterdam, GOS. Museum, landscape 1676 and undated work depicting a road in the woods, walking along the river), the artist uses contrasts of the horizon with large masses of trees in the foreground, and methods Italianate Arcadian landscape.

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