Ivanovich Shubin

Russia • 1740−1805

Biography and information

Fedot Ivanovich Shubin (1740-1805) — a great Russian sculptor.

Shubin was born 17 (28) may 1740 in Arkhangelsk province, in the fishing village near Kholmogory. His father, Ivan Afanasievich Fur, free peasant, knew the language and was the first teacher of M. V. Lomonosov. In the family Shubyni engaged in fishing, arable farming, carved bone and mother of pearl.

In the winter of 1759, after his father's death, Fedot skin coat following the example of his great countryman went with a fish wagon train to the capital. Two years the young man cut snuff-boxes, fans, combs, trinkets, who are eager to buy in St. Petersburg. In November 1761, Fedot skin coat, protected by M. Lomonosov and the first Trustee of the Academy of arts Ivan Shuvalov, was included in the lists of disciples under the name of Fedot Shubin. At the Academy he studied with Nicolas-françois Gillet.

Shubin studied persistently and repeatedly received praise and awards. In June 1766 in bas-relief "the Murder of Askold and dir," he was awarded Big gold medal and "Certificate with the sword", which meant to receive the first officer rank and personal nobility. Academic work Shubina, which include the genre statue "Valdayka with bagels and Oreshnitsa with nuts", did not reach us. For "good success, Dobronravov, honest and commendable behavior" Shubin with a group of seniors in may 1767 went to Paris. There they took care of the Russian Ambassador Dmitry Golitsyn, an enlightened and good man, a philanthropist, a great connoisseur of art. On the advice of Diderot, who was on friendly terms Golitsyn, Shubin has defined the Studio of the sculptor J.-B. Pigalle, known not only as the Creator of allegorical and mythological compositions, but also as the author of a number of realistic portrait busts. Worked for him, Shubin copies of the works of contemporary French sculptors and antique statues, sculpts bas-reliefs with paintings by Raphael and Poussin. But especially a lot Pigalle makes your student to work from life. In the evenings Shubin attended the fourth class of the Paris Academy of arts, was often in the Royal library and the studios of famous sculptors. "No one in Paris the place is remarkable and worthy, relating to us, not skip and use diligence in the increment of the mind," he wrote to St. Petersburg.

After a three-year stay in Paris in the late 1770 Shubin with permission of the Academy travels to Rome. The following year he creates the portraits of I. I. Shuvalov (1771) and his nephew F. N. Golitsyn (1771,). Successful was the marble bust of Catherine II, despite the fact that this work was executed from nature. Then the favorites of the Empress, Alexei and Fyodor Orlov — Shubin order your portraits. These works are particularly restraint and realistic tendencies in the interpretation of images.

In 1772, Shubin during a trip with Demidovii Italy stayed in Bologna, where he executed several works for which the oldest in Europe, the Bologna Academy granted him a diploma for the title of honorary academician. In the summer of 1773, before returning to St. Petersburg, Shubin with Demidovii made another journey to London.

The first work of the sculptor at home was a bust of Catherine the diplomat Prince A. M. Golitsyn, one of the most brilliant works Shubina (1775, gypsum, marble,). The image of an educated nobleman, in which the subtle mind is combined with the secular sophistication, and a sense of superiority over others-fatigue aging man, showing a soulful and expressive. Beautifully conveys the fluid movement of the folds of the clothes, which if they obey the rotation of the head and shoulders and at the same time off it. Marble truly "breathes" under the master cutter, as contemporaries said about art Shubin. This work earned the praise of Falcone.

On 4 September 1774 the Academy of arts, violating the Charter, according to which the title of academician is charged only for works of historical or mythological genre, awards Shubin for his portrait bust of the Empress. This exception was possible because it was aware of the goodwill towards the sculptor and the court nobility, and Catherine II.

In 70-e years the master has created a lot of portraits, it worked quickly — at least one bust per month. All wished to have the portraits made by the Empress ' favourite. However inexhaustible powers of observation and acumen has helped the sculptor not to repeat myself, to find new solutions that come not from external evidence and from the internal content model. In portraits Shubin before us is the upper light of St. Petersburg. For external grace and elegance of court ladies of M. R. Panina (mid-1770s,) slip coldness, imperiousness and arrogance; the famous General field Marshal P. A. Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (1777) is depicted in artfully draped cloak, his appearance is not at all embellished. Moreover — the sculptor was able to identify it features a strong and significant nature.

Completely different character is revealed in the portrait of V. Orlov (1778). Aristocratic posture, a lush drape — all the solemnity of appearance received under the hand of the sculptor tinge of irony. Simple and strict in composition bust of a wealthy industrialist S. I. Baryshnikov (1778). In this representative of the emerging bourgeoisie Shubin sees a smart and prudent businessman; brilliantly merged individual and social traits.

Emotion, romantic mood striking portrait of the state Secretary of Catherine II P. V. Zavadsky (mid-1770s). This perception of the image contributes to the interpretation of plastic form — temperamental fast modeling.

The innermost movements of the soul reveals the sculptor in a surprisingly poetic image of the young man — "portrait of an unknown" (mid-1770s). Calm composition, soft modeling help to feel a state of deep thought model.

In 1774-1775 years, Shubin worked on the order of Catherine II and on the series, consisting of fifty-eight round marble bas-reliefs (with a diameter of about 70 cm) depicting princes and reigning monarchs from Rurik to Elizabeth Petrovna. The bas-reliefs were intended for the round hall of the Chesmensky Palace and are currently in the Armory. Images interpreted in accordance with the characteristics given in the annals. In the next ten years Shubin carried out numerous orders for decorative works-statues and relief for the Marble Palace, sculptures for the Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky monastery, the marble mausoleum of Lieutenant-General P. M. Golitsyn. Recent decorative work of Shubin was a statue of Pandora for the Grand cascade, created in connection with the replacement of the decaying leaden sculptures of Peterhof. The prototype for it was the "bather" Falcone, which Shubin copied in Paris.

Portrait of the 80-ies of noteworthy busts of P. B. Sheremetev (1783, Kuskovo) and General I. Michelson (1785,), a medallion with a profile image of Catherine II and her sculpture bust (1783).

Isolation is in the works Shubina statue of "Catherine II — the lawgiver" (1789-1790). This statue, depicting the Empress in the image of the goddess Minerva, enjoyed great success, but from the Empress, the sculptor has not received remuneration not received, and the professors ' place in the Academy, where portrait sculpture was considered a "low genre". Over time, interest in Shubin fades away. Done without embellishment, less like portraits of high-society audience that wants to see its picture perfect. Fewer orders, falls and payment. The artist is forced to turn to G. A. Potemkin, and he requests that the President of the Academy of arts I. I. beckim of enrollment Shubin for the position of adjunct Professor in the sculpture class. From the sculptor, too, delivers a petition to the Council of the Academy and requested a paid position. Both letters remain unanswered. Then, in 1792, Shubin turns to Catherine: "your Majesty, are in derogation of health and the need to ask for help..." Only two years later the celebrated master was approved as a Professor, but without the provision of paid seats. The hardships undermined his health, and already a sick man, burdened with a large family. But Shubin never ceases to work. Works related to 1790 years, attest to the abilities of the sculptor deeply and fully disclose the nature of man. Created multifaceted images: dry old warrior Admiral V. Y. Chichagov (1791,), kind of haughty sybarite G. Potyomkin (1791, RM), General Feldzeugmeister Platon Zubov (1796,), the pedantic I. betskoi (1790s, TG), the mayor of St. Petersburg E. M. Chulkov (1792,) etc.

In 1792 Shubin memory creates a portrait of M. V. Lomonosov (RM). Unlike the others, this portrait is deeply democratic, simple but the composition and treatment of forms, full of deep intelligence. and in it there was no element of ostentation and formality. A masterpiece of portraiture is the bust of Paul I (1797, marble, RM). Shubin reveals in it the complexity of the image: arrogance, cold cruelty, pain and hidden in the depths of suffering. However, the work of sculptor Paul liked it.

Every year the situation Shubin was getting heavier. In 1797 he turned for help to Paul, and a year submits a request of the Academy with a request "not to leave the country although a government-owned house with firewood and candles." But it was left without attention. Shubin had a family to support, he began to go blind, and in 1801 burned down his house and shop with the works that were there.

The blows of fate is not forced to change Shubin himself. In one of his last works — a bust of Alexander (1801, Voronezh regional Museum of fine arts) for external affability of the Emperor is seen cold indifference. Alexander still showed mercy, gave the sculptor the diamond ring. Had to attend to Shubin and Academy, providing the state apartments and the candles, which he had requested. In 1803 by decree of Alexander I appointed Shubin, finally, adjunct Professor with a salary by the state. But health was completely undermined, and 12 (24) may 1805 Shubin died. The death of the sculptor has passed almost unnoticed. Tragically ended the life of a sculptor whose art, according to V. I. Mukhina, was the "image of time".

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