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Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky
Ivan
 Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky
Russia 1810−1885
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Biography and information
 
Ivan Fomich Khrutsky — (January 27, 1810, the village of Ulla, Vitebsk governorate, 13 January 1885, the estate Zaharije Vitebsk province, Russian Empire) — Belarusian and Russian painter, master of portrait and still life.

Khrutsky left a noticeable trace in the history of art due to its numerous naturalistic still lifes that adorned the richest homes of his contemporaries; the master can rightly be considered the founder of Russian still life genre. Khrutsky was also an excellent portraitist, whose works clearly show the principles venetsianovskoy school.

Features of the artist’s work:In the still life of Ivan Khrutsky’s possible to find the influence of Dutch and Flemish masters, but Khrutsky have developed my own recognizable style: his work is optimistic, they felt prestigious life time. Smooth, translucent brushwork fits into the basic principles of academic art. The generous gifts of nature, depicted Greckim — a symbol of abundant life for the people of that time. This exotic grape that is only grown in the greenhouses of St. Petersburg, and lemons, which the artist often depicted «Dutch-style» — with notched peel down from the table. Dear «Paradise» the fruit is one of the iconic features of Khrutsky’s still life, and realistic, workshop super-accuracy in the depiction of the smallest details of the work: patterns and textures of vegetables and fruits, glass and ceramics, fabrics and metal.

Famous paintings by Ivan Khrutsky: «Portrait of an unknown with flowers and fruits», «Flowers and fruits», «The woman knitting stockings„"Still life with binoculars“, „Fruit and melon“, „Still life with candle“.

Youth and first teacher
Ivan Fomich Khrutsky was born in a Polish family Uniate priest in the village of Ulla, Lepel uyezd, Vitebsk province. The eldest son in the family, he had to continue his father’s — in 10 years the boy was sent to Polotsk, where he entered the Lyceum monastic order PR. Here Khrutsky received an excellent education, including learned several languages. However, the priest he never became: when Ivan turned 17, he decided to go to the capital and to enter the Academy of arts. Here, memories of the descendants of the artist, for some time he was an English artistBy George Dawe, who has worked on hundreds of portraits of Russian generals for the Military gallery in the Winter Palace of St. Petersburg.
However, this is disputed; in fact, the whole biography of Ivan Khrutsky’s replete with white spots and is of great interest to art historians: the artist left no letters or diaries. However, it is believed that from 1830 to 1833 years Khrutsky worked under the leadership of George Dawe. At the same time he received permission for the right to visit the Imperial Hermitage, where he was engaged in copying the works of the greatest masters of Europe. It is known that in the Hermitage Khrutsky made under the patronage of academicianJozef Oleskevich (1777 — 1830), artist of Polish origin, member of the Academy of arts, known for his work for the Royal family and reputed to be unusually virtuous man.

Academic studies
In 1833, Ivan Khrutsky is coming („outsiders“, as they said) a disciple of the Imperial Academy of Arts. He studies in the Studio of landscape painter Maxim Vorobievand the basics of portrait painting comprehends in class Alexander Warnecke. Teachers Khrutsky was outstanding academicsKarl Briullov and Feodor Bruni. Some critics believe that the Academy Khrutsky metAlexei Tarasovym — an artist who had already graduated from the school of the painter Alexey Venetsianovrecognized master of landscape painting and peasant genre scenes. It venetsianovskoy brushwork and great attention to every detail of the objective world is largely inherent creativity Khrutsky.
Graduating in 1836, Ivan Khrutsky was awarded the title of class (free) artist. For the painting"Flowers and fruits» he was awarded a large silver medal. In 1837 Emperor Nicholas I paid tribute Khrutsky clock on a gold chain «to encourage further work.» The popularity of Ivan Khrutsky’s growing, and a year later for the painting «Flowers and fruits» and"The woman knitting stockings" he was awarded a small gold medal of Academy of arts.

Beautiful stranger
In the period from 1835 to 1838 Ivan Khrutsky writes a series of portraits depicting a young beautiful woman; this series of «Unknown» — with flowers,fruit — a big mystery for historians and art historians. About the person that married woman — and on almost all the portraits we can see the wedding ring is still not known. The version of the portraits of his wife could not stand the test: Khrutsky’s future wife, Anna Ksaverevna Bubnovskiy (1822) was only 13−15 years old… But the piece, known under the name «Portrait of wife with flowers and fruits» (1838), which depicts the same woman as on a series of «Unknown» portraits of women, suggests that in the artist’s life was a mysterious story that contemporaries know nothing. Today this painting is called"Portrait of an unknown with flowers and fruits" and is the hallmark The national art Museum of Belarusand the entire collection of works by Ivan Khrutsky, which is stored here. A fragment of this painting is depicted on modern thousand money bill of the Republic of Belarus.

A recognized master of still life
Khrutsky constantly exhibited; his works were exhibited at exhibitions of the Academy of fine arts and has always enjoyed success with the public thanks to the bright colours and sense of celebration that they evoked in the viewer. Because of the huge number of orders Khrutsky often repeated their work, often only slightly changing the composition. So, «still life with binoculars," written in 1839, the artist repeated eight times. In short, he found his creative niche, becoming the best known and most popular Russian master of still life XIX century. «For excellent work in portrait, landscape and especially in painting fruits and vegetables» Ivan Khrutsky in 1839 he received the title of academician of the Imperial Academy of arts.

Being an excellent portraitist, Khrutsky in this genre almost always included in his still-life painting. Many of his works clearly shows a Biedermeier-style family scenes, portraits in interiors, written with great details… Felt immersed in the perception of the world a child, love of family. Kruckow order well — known personalities- he wrote «Portrait of Jehoshaphat Bulgakov» (1843), the Uniate Metropolitan and «Portrait of Ilya Ivanovich Glazunov», the largest book publisher of St. Petersburg.

Homecoming
Being the eldest son in the family, after the death of his father in 1839 Khrutsky, Ivan decided to leave Saint Petersburg, their fans, expensive orders and return to the fold to become a support for his mother, brothers and sisters. Absorbed in family cares, the artist became less likely to write — basically, to create portraits. In 1844 he purchased not far from Polotsk estate Saharica, where he built the house on his own project. A year later Ivan Khrutsky married a young neighbor-a Catholic, to Anna Ksaverevna Truong-Bubnovskiy (1822 — 18…), the daughter of an officer, and finally settled in his native land.

Wilno period
In 1846 the artist invites you to the work of Archbishop Iosif Semashko. Ivan Khrutsky is coming to Vilna, where he provide an apartment, a table and a fee of a thousand silver rubles a year. Alas, it is a special pleasure to work on Semashko, the artist has been the Archbishop constantly interfered with the creative process required to copy the classic European masters. For the past 8 years Ivan Khrutsky painted portraits closest associates Semashko 32 portrait of the clergy, of which to have survived only one — «Portrait Of Vincent Lisowski». The artist also created icons for the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Kovno (Kaunas), cave Church of the three martyrs in Vilna Church. Joseph in Trnopolje, landscapes, types of Vilnius… In the same period Khrutsky takes part in the publication «Vilnius album» Jan Wilczynski: in the first of a series of lithographic views of cities of Vilna, produced in Paris, is his work «the Suburbs Snipiskiu».

Leisurely years in Saharnica
Finally, Grucci leaves the drudgery of the customer and the patron of Joseph Semashko, by that time become a Metropolitan. The artist returns to the family, relatives Saharnica. In 1855 he writes is not quite characteristic of his work — a portrait of Adam Mickiewicz. Created after the death of the poet and a leader of the Polish liberation movement, this portrait by its very existence raises a number of questions that he answers Khrutsky left.

In subsequent years the life of Ivan Khrutsky and his family flows peacefully and smoothly; the artist is a modest, almost reclusive life, runs small, says family portraits and home interiors, almost forgetting about our favorite still lifes. One of the last works of Ivan Khrutsky — «Self-portrait"created in 1884, during the 9 months before death.

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Artworks by the artist
total 31 artworks
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Portrait of an unknown woman with a basket in his hands
0
Portrait of an unknown woman with a basket in his hands
1830-th , 66×57.5 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Family portrait
1
Family portrait
1854, 90×71.5 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Portrait of young woman with basket
0
Portrait of young woman with basket
1835, 88×66 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Self-portrait
0
Self-portrait
1884, 35×45 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Mushrooms and vegetables
0
Mushrooms and vegetables
1842, 40×53 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. The flowers and fruits. Fragment
1
The flowers and fruits. Fragment
1839
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Meat and vegetables
0
Meat and vegetables
1842, 117×138 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. In the rooms of the estate of the artist by I. F. Khrutsky "Zahranici"
0
In the rooms of the estate of the artist by I. F. Khrutsky "Zahranici"
1855, 67×84 cm
Ivan Fomich (Trofimovich) Khrutsky. Fruit
1
Fruit
XIX century, 71×88 cm
View 31 artworks by the artist
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