Max Ernst (Max Ernst German; April 2, 1891, Brühl, Germany - April 1, 1976, Paris) - A German artist and sculptor who worked in France and America, became one of the main participants in several artistic movements: Dadaism, surrealism, expressionism. The inventor of the technician frodtazh and scraping.
Max Ernst lived 85 years and managed to become a participant and sometimes the instigator of the most incredible stories and art projects. He was 23 years old when World War I began. The artist will later write about this time: “On August 1, 1914, M.E. is dead. He was resurrected on November 11, 1918. A graduate of the Faculty of Philosophy, specializing in psychology, Ernst never dealt with the profession itself. He quarreled with his parents, who dreamed that he became a teacher, and devoted himself to art. For a long time without receiving any financial return from the chosen lesson, Ernst, nevertheless, quickly found a duzey and gained recognition among the initiated: artists, poets, sculptors. In 1919, he became the organizer and participant of one of the first exhibitions of German Dadaists. Scandalous fame about this event has come to Paris and even to New York.
He illegally moved to France, where his paintings were met with great enthusiasm, lived in an exhausting threefold alliance with the poet Paul Eluard and his wife Gala (the one who would later leave Ernst and Eluard to Dali), participated in the creation of a single performance in the enterprise Sergey Dyagilev, starred in the film Bunuel, saw his paintings in photos from the exhibition "Degenerative Art", with the beginning of the Second World War, was arrested as a German, twice fled from the camp, through France, Spain and Portugal in 1940, he emigrated to America. He managed to get out of this adventure unscathed only through participation Peggy guggenheimwhich was keenly interested in the art of Ernst and acquired by that time many of his paintings. Peggy will be his third wife. However, not for long. Ernst soon marries an American artist Dorothee Tanning. After spending 10 years in America, Ernst returned to France when the country came to life after the war, managed to participate in the Venice Biennale and found two large solo exhibitions in Paris and New York.
Features of the artist Max Ernst: say creative methodJackson Pollock Max Ernst presented it. It was he who invented pouring paint into a leaky tin can and swinging it over the canvas. Actually, Ernst came up with a lot of things: the scratching method (scratching a layer of paint, revealing the texture of objects under the canvas), the frosting method (rubbing paper with a pencil to show the volume of the objects laid). He was fond of collages and invented absurd names for his works. People-birds, people-mechanisms, hats, unearthly creatures, unprecedented constructions - it seems that the fantasy of Ernst-surrealist knew no bounds.
Tachisme in its modern meaning arose in the 1950s in France. The style got its name from the French word "tache" meaning "a spot". Tachisme became part of the more widespread French post-war trend in painting, which was known as informalism (fr. art informel). The artists of this style abandoned geometric abstraction in favour of an intuitive, instinctive form of self-expression through…