Tolkien was an Oxford Professor of Anglo-Saxon language (1925-1945), English language and literature (1945-1959). The Catholic, together with a close friend C. S. Lewis was a literary society, "the Inklings". March 28, 1972, Tolkien was awarded the title of commander of the Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II.
An English writer, philologist, Tolkien was born in the South African capital of the Orange Republic in the family of a Bank Manager. In 1895, the mother carries Tolkien and his younger brother to England. After his father's death(1896) the family settled in a suburb of Birmingham. The first teacher of Tolkien is his mother, who taught the children Latin and French languages, drawing, music. Since childhood manifested interest in Tolkien's languages and to reading fairy tales, it is carried away by legends of the American Indians and the songs of the "Elder Edda". At the age of seven years he writes his first tale of the dragon. In 1900, in connection with the receipt of Tolkien in the grammar school the family moved to Birmingham. At school, Tolkien enthusiastically studying languages: Greek, German, old English, Germanic, Gothic, Icelandic. He likes the history of language and comparative Philology, he tries to invent new languages. In 1904, after the death of his mother the guardian of Tolkien and his brother became her spiritual father Francis Morgan, which his players get the opportunity to finish school. In 1911 Tolkien entered the faculty of English language and literature at Oxford University. In Oxford he discovers the Finnish epic, exploring drevnefinskoy language to read the original "Kalevala". Later on the basis of drevnefinskoy language he invented Elvish language in which to speak his heroes.
When the first world war, Tolkien was a student of the senior class. After passing the exams, he volunteers to the army and becomes a Lieutenant when the battalion Lancashire Fusiliers. In the war he had to endure the deaths of friends, he participated in the bloody battle of the Somme, had been ill with trench fever.
After the war, Tolkien was invited to work on compiling a Large dictionary of English language at Oxford, which was a significant recognition of his philological achievements. In 1920 he became a lecturer, then a Professor of English at the University of Leeds.
In 1925, the Tolkien family returned to Oxford, where he became a Professor of Anglo-Saxon language. Material ambition, Tolkien in these years, often forced to undertake additional work to support his family (he has three sons, and later a daughter Priscilla). But at night he composes his magical stories about elves, middle earth, Kingdom of Valinor.
The first published work of Tolkien was the novel "the Hobbit, or There and back again" ("The Hobbit, or There and Back Again", 1937). The story was such a success that even Tolkien feared that the glory of the author of books for children will damage his reputation, Professor-philologist. Under the influence of coaxing publishers to write another book about the hobbit Tolkien begins to create a Lord of the Rings. However, the text was slow and dragged on for 17 years. "The Lord of the Rings" was finally completed in 1954. Because of the high cost of paper publishing of this voluminous works in a single volume was not possible, and the publishers Allen and Unwin with the consent of the author divided the text into three volumes, the names of whom gave Unwin Junior. The success of the Lord of the Rings was huge. The book has gained popularity not only in England. Thank becomes for Tolkien burdensome.
Tolkien took refuge in the small resort town of Bournemouth, where he went together with his wife Edith bratt in 1968 After the death of Edith Tolkien returned to Oxford in 1972. In the same year he became a knight of the order of the British Empire II degree. Tolkien died 2 September 1973. he was buried beside his wife in the cemetery near Oxford. On tombstones are inscribed the names of the legendary characters of the epic Tolkien - "Beren" and "Lucien".