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Wouverman (Wouverman)


Biography and information


Wouwerman became famous for his hunting scenes, portraits of the riders. Especially popular Wouwerman paintings depicting horses. His landscapes, in which interwoven action, belong to the best examples of Dutch painting of the Golden age.

Philips Wouwerman studied painting with his father, Paulus Joosten Wouwerman and possibly Frans Hals. The artist was also influenced by Peter Ferbekom and itemizedoverlay artist Pieter van Laer. In 1638 Wouwerman escaped with his bride Anna Pieters van Brockhoff to Hamburg to get married against the will and religious beliefs of his father (she was Catholic). In Hamburg Bowerman worked in the Studio of Evert Decker. On his return to Haarlem in 1640, joined the local Guild of artists, and in 1645-46, the year had occupied an important position. Philips Wouwerman to the end of his life achieved recognition, honor and glory in Haarlem society.

Wouwerman was a Dutch painter and draughtsman. He was the eldest son in the family of the artist [Pauls] Jostens paintings by wouwerman of Alkmaar (died 28 Sep 1642). Two other sons, Pieter Wouwerman (1623 – 1682) and Johannes Wouwerman (1629 – 1666) also became painters. Most likely, your first painting lessons Phillips received from his father, none of whose works have not been identified. According to Cornelis de BIE, Wouwerman studied with Frans Hals, although his work is not seen visible traces of his influence. Several weeks in 1638 or 1639 Wouwerman worked in Hamburg in the Studio of the German history painter Evert Decker (died 1647). While in Hamburg, he married Annette Peters van Broekhoff. On 4 September 1640 Wouwerman joined the Harlem Guild of St. Luke in 1646 he held the post of vinder (agent or 'finder'). The presence of numerous elements of southern landscapes has led to the popular belief that he traveled to Italy and France, although there is no documentary evidence that he left Harlem for a long period. The relatively large sums inherited by each of his seven children after his wife's death in 1670 indicate that Wouwerman made up of well-being. Anyway, the approval of Houbraken that his daughter, Louis, received a dowry of 20,000 guilders when she married Hendrik de Romantio (1633/4 – after 1694) in 1672, nothing is confirmed.


Without a doubt, Wouwerman was the most perfect and successful of the Dutch artist XVII century, who wrote of horses, pictures which he included in many of his paintings of small size with battle scenes, hunting scenes, army camps, smithies and stables. Thin, silver-grey landscapes, genre scenes, few, original religious and mythological themes to demonstrate the versatility of his skill. Wouwerman was incredibly active despite the fact that he lived only 48 years, more than 1000 paintings, signed his name, although some of them must be attributed as the work of his brothers, Peter and Johannes. We only know a small number of drawings Phillips.


Despite the huge number of paintings paintings by wouwerman, it is difficult to determine the chronology of his creative development, since only a comparatively small number of them signed. The style of the signatures gives a possibility to date them in a very wide chronological frames: monogram of the letters “p”, “h” and “w” was used until 1646, after he signed the work with a monogram comprised of the “phils” and “w”. Most of the early work of Phillips, Military Camp (1639; sold London, Christie's, 10 November 1972, lot No. 13), is not high skill, but in 1640-ies his talent developed quickly. In this period the artist was strongly influenced Pieter van Laer, who in 1638 returned from Italy to Harlem. Houbraken claims that Wouwerman acquired the sketches and studies by van Laer after his death, the influence of Laura particularly evident in the film the Attack on the Crew (1644; Vaduz, Liechtenstein Collection), where he almost copies some parts and shapes of people out of work Laura. In the middle of the 1640-ies in the compositions of paintings by wouwerman diagonal is dominated by hills and dunes, contrasting with the trees and a few human figures, usually with horses. Three works are dated the year 1646, Landscape with Peasants making Merry in front of the House (Manchester, City Art Gallery), Battle Scene (London, national Gallery), and Landscape with a resting Horseman (Leipzig, Museum of Fine Arts), show that Wouwerman, continuing to draw inspiration in the works Laura successfully worked on my own style.


By 1649 wouwerman's sombre palette had become more colourful and his compositions more and more horizontal. Around the same time his work is beginning to reflect interest in the landscape, in the first half of the 1650's, he created several works that demonstrates his skill in this genre. In a Landscape with horsemen (1652; great Britain, private collection), painted in silvery tones, figures of men and horses was reduced to little more than staffage. The genre elements continue to play an important role in most of his works, is particularly evident in the most successful work created in this period Cheerful Peasants before a Panorama (1653; the Minneapolis Art Institute). Must be none of his film the master did not manage to capture such a happy synthesis of genre and landscape elements. In the second half of the 1650s Wouwerman years wrote many complex hunting scenes, often with a vague Italian scenery and a vivid local colors; these paintings were especially popular in the XVIII – early XIX century, especially in France. Despite the fact that there are only few works of the last years of his life, they reveal a tendency towards a darker palette and show some loss of skill. The influence of van Laer almost disappeared, but Wouwerman continues to choose Lauru inherent in the topic.


Wouwerman also had several students, among them Nicholas Fike (b. about 1620), Jakob Warners and Swedish master Witholt Court in 1642; in 1656, he studied Anthony de Khan (1640 – before 1675). Emanuel Morant (1622 – circa 1700), Hendrik Berkman (1629 – 1679), Barend Gal (about 1630/40 – after 1681) and his own brothers also learned from him. Wouwerman also had many followers. All the important collections formed in the XVIII – early XIX century, including those that formed the core of the collection of museums in St. Petersburg, Dresden and the Hague, contain many of his works. Between 1737 и1759 years Jean Moreau (1690 – 1762) published 89 engravings from the works of paintings by wouwerman. Since the mid-nineteenth century, its popularity began to decline, but at the end of the twentieth century interest in his work has resumed.

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  • Styles of art
    Baroque, The Golden age of Holland
  • Techniques
  • Art forms
  • Subjects
    Landscape, Genre scene, Animalism