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Generalić: (Horw.: Ivan Generalić; 21.12.1914, Hlebine, Croatia — 27.11.1992, Koprivnica). Croatian painter, representative of naive art, founder Chlebinska school of painting.

Features of the artist Ivan Generalich: Heroes of Generaliza is farmers in their everyday work, and stay in the house and in nature. He often depicted ordinary rural households in different seasons, the livestock and all the unpretentious life of the surrounding villagers. It is this simplicity and childlike in the image of any, even the tragic story became the feature, which know Generalica. His art has evolved from simple image genre social scenes to create atmosphere and mood due to the special color and peculiar construction of the landscape. The author exhibited in Paris, new York, Brussels and other world capitals.

Famous paintings of the artist Ivan Generalich: "The island", "Village care", "Sheep at the Eiffel tower", "Adam and eve", "Under the pear".

First paint

Generalić was born 21 December 1914 in the village of Hlebine on the territory of Croatia, which at that time was still part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. His parents, poor peasants, mate and Theresa, were engaged in agriculture. Ivan had two younger brothers, one of whom died in infancy and the other became a sculptor.

Ivan studied in a rural school, but from a very early age was interested in drawing it. Parents simple rural people could not, and did not think about how to provide her the necessary materials for your favorite things. So that boy alone "invented" drawing tools from twigs and coal. Paint he extracted a particularly interesting way: on Christmas day it was customary to decorate the tree with flowers made of colored paper. The remains of this paper, it was soaked in water and obtained a pigment which he could paint pictures. And thick paper served as a brush.

Krsto, Hegedusic – painter and engraver, and while still a student at the Academy of fine arts, helped the world to open Ivan Generalich. Ivan, thanks to him being a fifteen-year teenager, he began regularly to paint, and then exhibited as "adult" artist. His first exhibition was in 1931 in Zagreb.

Life as art

In 1932, Generali takes part in the IV exhibition of the group "Earth" in Zagreb. "Earth" was the name of a collective of artists, tending to peasant art, usmotrevshih it a truly national origins. Two years later, the author again exposed the same with a new, more interesting work, notice that both the audience and critics. Year after year he is developing his own technique and improving as a wizard. Oil on glass — such an unusual combination is a favorite for Ivan Generalich.

In 1934 he married Anke Kolarek, the daughter of a postman from native Hlebine. And again comes a series of exhibitions in Belgrade and Zagreb. Criticism becomes more active, more fragmented. Ambiguous critics perceive his work. Some call them "degenerate primitivism", but others find the features of genuine art.

The mid-1930s, the time of active development of peasant art: the artists tried to convince the public that talent and ability for creative work does not depend on the origin and education. Many were convinced that the "rural" authors without study in "academies" represent a reality far more truthfully and honestly than honored masters.

In 1936 the artist's family was born the son of Josip, which in the future will go in his father's footsteps and become an artist. In the same year generalić participated in the first exhibition of the Croatian peasant artists. From this point began his personal exhibitions. He became a respected and recognisable author, but he continues to live in the village and engage in agriculture.

In 1940 he created his iconic, classic work of oil on glass - "Island". In the picture in a dark ominous tones — a tiny village with its inhabitants in the process of ordinary everyday Affairs. Despite the dark colors, every detail of the painting emphasizes the vitality of joyful work and General mood: this sense create a cosy ramshackle houses, white clothes mowers and bright clothes, carelessly hung on the fence.

Creative success and Chlebinska school

World war does not change the direction of painting of Ivan Generalich. He determined not to pain and death, and life and beauty, remaining in his rural "prison". At the end of the war, the artist gathered the most talented rural youth and organized a so-called Chlebinska school of painting. His native village of tiny dots on the map turned into a center for the arts. Generalic became a teacher for the next generation of young talent — "naive" artists. In Zagreb was organized by the rural art gallery, which served as a canvas Generalica. Now the gallery of the Croatian Museum of naive art.

The artist tried himself as a monumental author, describing the Church in the town of Marija Bistrica. Story of his works was "the Flight into Egypt", but the painting was never finished.

Naive art conquers Paris

1953 was one of the key in the artistic development of Generalica. It was then that he managed to organize an independent exhibition in Paris. So naive art Croatia began to penetrate into the wider European space. Five years later, his work together with works by Dali, Kandinsky and Picasso will see at the exhibition "50 Ans d'art Moderne" in Brussels. Here Generalica recognized as one of the most important artists of the first half of the twentieth century. Despite the obvious worldwide recognition, teaching in Chlebinska school remains an important part of his job.

In the 1960s he began to collaborate with the Swiss art dealer Bruno Bishofberger. At this time there are endless debates about the value and appropriateness of the term "naive art". Then the master creates his most famous and recognizable works: "Adam and eve", "Village care".

In 1975, his wife died Anka. Through five Generalic married Rosa Loncaric, Cora lived the rest of his life.

Judging always actively present. Over a lifetime, Generali participated in hundreds of exhibitions held 7 solo exhibitions. In addition to painting he worked on sets, graphics, and even illustrated several poetry publications. His work has been published eight monographs, which were translated into several languages.

A huge impact on Generalic artists working in a naive style. Contrary to popular cliche, the master was recognized as a "prophet in his own country", expresses thoughts and feelings through paintings filled with light and air, fabulous patterns writhing trees inhabited by funny creatures and, of course, people.

For the contribution to culture of Croatia generalić was posthumously awarded the order of Danica, which shows Marco Marulic — Croatian medieval poet and humanist.

Author: Lyudmila Lebedeva
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