Moller was born in the family of naval Minister Admiral Anton V. von Moller. Serving officer, he attended classes Petersburg Academy of Arts. Participated in suppressing the uprising of the poles in 1830.
On his arrival in Petersburg Karl Briullov Moller comes to his training, and soon be leaving military service.
For a painting depicting the family of his father Fyodor Moller received a gold medal from the Academy. 1839 he went to Rome, where he painted one of his best paintings - "the Kiss". For this picture he received the title of academician. And after the painting "John the Evangelist is preaching on the island of Patmos during the feast of Bacchus" gets the title of Professor.
The son of a sailor of high rank (later naval Minister) Anton V. von Moller, Fyodor, and he was preparing for a naval career. A graduate of the Naval cadet corps already in 1826 was promoted to officer. However, awakened an interest in painting and undoubted talent of the young naval officer "forced" him to visit the Academy of fine arts, where he soon becomes one of the favorite pupils of Karl Briullov.
First performed before the public on the academic exhibition in 1832 with a painting "the Battle of Ostroleka". After they were exposed to "Alceste, freeing Hercules from Kingdom of shadows" and several genres. In 1835, the Academy for his achievements in drawing, he was awarded a small gold medal.
On his arrival in Petersburg Karl Briullov Moller began to use his leadership, and that inseparably to be painting, he retired from military service.
In 1837, for the painting depicting the family of his father, he was awarded the Academy's Grand gold medal and is recognized by the designated academics.
In 1838, After graduating from the Academy Moller goes on their own initiative in Italy to improve artistic skill. In 1840 sent to St. Petersburg painting "the Kiss", the artist received the title of academician and priority fame. Italy is extremely rich creative life. Among his close friends — Fedor Bruni, Alexandr Ivanov and Nikolai Gogol, with whom the artist was especially friendly and a few portraits, of which he wrote. In addition to portraits of Fedor Moller in accordance with the academic canons wrote of paintings on biblical and historical subjects.
Returning in 1847 for a while in Russia, he again went to Rome, where he was fascinated by the ideas of local German artists of the Nazarite and the style of Overbeck and wrote in the spirit of colossal painting, "the Sermon of the Apostle John on the Isle of Patmos," for which in 1856 he received the title of Professor of historical painting.
In St. Petersburg, he teaches, directs the activities of the seniors of the Society to promote artists and performs orders responsible for the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow (a series of paintings dedicated to Alexander Nevsky), Saint Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg ("the carrying of the cross"). Transient inflammation of the lungs interrupted work on his latest painting — "the Crucifixion of Christ."