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Maxim Nikiforovich

Russia • 1787−1856

M. N. Vorobiev was the son of a soldier, rose to the rank of non-commissioned officer, and after the resignation of hiring a caretaker at the Academy of fine Arts. Here and educated future artist: in 1798 he was enrolled in an architectural class, which was led by JB Thomas de Thomon, and finished Academy of arts in 1809 on a class of landscape painting.

Life Vorobyov has developed successfully: in 1814 he became an academician in the following year began teaching in 1823 he received the title of Professor, and in 1843-m Professor Emeritus.

In 1813-14 he went with the Russian troops in Western Europe

The son of the janitor of the Academy of Arts, Vorobiev at the age of ten he enrolled as a pupil of the Academy and has had great success in drawing, perspective, architecture (Professor Thomas de Thomon), and landscape painting; his mentors in the latter were F. Y. Alekseev and probably M. M. Ivanov (painter). The kind of painting chosen a young artist, or, rather, assigned to him by the academic authorities, was the architectural landscape. It is well painted and grouped human figures, ogulagha his paintings. In 1809, F. Ya. Alekseev, landscape decorative areas in the expedition for exploring the historic areas of Central Russia, received as helpers to write views of cities, the younger Vorobyov. For recovery of these types of human figures Alekseev chose to depict scenes of visiting the cities by the Emperor. This official task was completed, and Vorobiev with success. In 1813 - 1814 sparrows were present at the headquarters in Germany and France, and in 1820 was made, on behalf of the government, a journey to Palestine, where he drew, extinct and sketched all of the main places revered by Christians. The difficulty of this enterprise was the fact that all measurements and drawings had to be done in secret from the oversight of the local Muslim authorities. In addition to temples, sparrows painted several landscape types "Jerusalem" and "the Dead sea, and on the way to Palestine - types "of Constantinople," the island "Rhodes", "Smyrna", "Jaffa", etc. All of these materials for future paintings was to 90 sheets of watercolor drawings part sketch, part of a highly over. Vorobyov journey to the Holy Places was arranged by Nikolay Pavlovich , the then Grand Duke, who wished to put in proper form the Church of the Resurrection, in the New Jerusalem, near Moscow. On his return to Petersburg, Vorobiev wrote (1823) "the Eve of the Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem" and in the same year - "Neva from the Troitsky bridge in the moon light". And later - "Inside the chapel of Calvary in the Church of the Resurrection" (the figures Express the time of the call to communion). In 1827 Vorobev wrote: "the Sunrise over the Neva river", "Dead sea", "Evening at the Abu gosh Arab Sheikh" (almost a genre picture), "View of Smyrna". During the Turkish war in 1828 sparrows was in the retinue of the Emperor for drawing and writing sketches on the instructions of his Majesty. The fruit of this time were among other things: "the siege of Varna", "Varna Explosion", "Odessa", "the Ship during a storm, which was a sovereign." Deeply preserved memories of Jerusalem was brought to life 16 years after Palestinian travel ("General view of Jerusalem" and "View of Constantinople from the Asian side"). With 1840 begins the sad period of life Vorobyova; lost this year, dearly-beloved wife, he began to degenerate morally the worse, fell into excesses, who developed in him the disease from which he died in 1855; during the same period decreased and his artistic activity. The last years of his life he was engaged mainly Italian types, according to the sketches made in the vicinity of Rome and Palermo, while traveling 1844 - 1846 Contemporaries set Vorobyov is very high. N. Puppeteer , the publisher of the journal of fine Arts", he spoke about the "View of Constantinople" is really one of the best films Vorobyev, "this is not a picture, and the one of water, earth and air." To the best pictures of the kind of open landscape with a distant horizon belong to the "Dead sea" and some of the Neva. "Night view of the Neva", which was mentioned above, the style is reminiscent of French artist Joseph Vernet. However, the image of water in motion, especially big waves, poorly managed our artist, whose main strength was linear and aerial perspective and a reasonable understanding of the relationship between colors. If the number of works of Vorobiev was a bit artistic, this should be attributed not to lack of talent in it, and the fact that for many years he, regarding choice of subjects, and partly of the treatments were depending on foreign orders. Such, for example, his paintings relating to the war of 1828, the greater part of his perspective paintings of the shrines of Jerusalem, images of parades, ceremonial entries, etc. work, in which the absolute fidelity with reality was the dominant requirement. Most of the activities Vorobyov was official art and only in rare cases it is freely given to the artistic mood, and he passed not only the General impression of wide spaces, but were engaged and peaceful life of nature, as seen in some types of the City. The most original of his artistic attempt, however, more courageous than successful, it's - "the Storm" (lightning tree) with the human figure, hiding from the terrible effects, optical task, almost impossible for painting. The technique of the paintings Vorobyov full knowledge, thought out and finished, but for all that is free. Artist Vorobyov vegaslas else in his music: he clearly possessed the violin. Financially sparrows were glaneuse supported the orders of the Emperor and other high personages, a lifetime pension for the successful implementation of the Palestinian order; in addition, he was painted for count A. H. Benkendorf , Prince M. S. Vorontsov, and he often did at their request repetition of some of his best paintings. However, in the end, many of his works have not been purchased by anyone, so the artist has made a Museum of his paintings, which broke up only after his death, being drawn in the lottery, not having much success. Chief paintings Vorobyov are in the palaces, in the estate of count Benkendorf fall and in a few private collections. The Hermitage is a "Calvary Chapel".

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