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Grigory
Nikolaevich Tomaev

XIX century−XX century
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Published the book: "Carved majolica mosaic in the architecture of Central Asia XIV-XV centuries." Tomaev G.N.
State publishing house of literature on construction and architecture, Moscow, 1951. - 120 p. : 85 ill., 6 incl. l. color silt
A brief historical overview of the development of architectural ornament in Central Asia. Analysis of the ornamentation of veneers from carved majolica mosaics. Technique, design features and deformations of facing from different majolica mosaics.



Of great importance for the study of the history of Khorezm, its cities, settlements, caravanserais, architectural structures, was the creation in 1937 under the leadership of S.P. Tolstov of the Khorezm archaeological and ethnographic expedition. Reconnaissance and stationary work was carried out on the territories of the medieval cities of Kunya-Urgench, Shah-Sanem, Shemakha, Shekhrlik. Several decades of continuous exploration activities of the KhAEE have provided abundant historical and archaeological material on the architectural decor of the southern Aral Sea region. In addition, in order to restore the monuments, new measurements were carried out, the plans of objects were removed and the physical and chemical properties of building materials were studied. New works appeared, specifically related to the architectural decoration of the monuments of Central Asia. In these works, along with other objects, the Golden Horde monuments of Khorezm were also studied. Among the major works, where the architectural decor of Central Asia, including Khorezm, was specially studied, is the work of G.I. Tomaeva "Carved majolica mosaic in the architecture of Central Asia in the XIV-XV centuries." G.I. Tomaev in the third chapter "Technique, design features and deformation of facing from carved majolica mosaics" especially studies the appearance in Central Asia, including Khorezm, of tiles (majolica, mosaic). The author in his work analyzes such terms "tile", "tiled mosaic", "glaze", "enamel", etc. In addition, the author for the first time studied the carved majolica mosaic of Khorezm. In particular, he says: "... the method of facing in the technique of carved majolica mosaic is exceptionally high in its artistic value, which can be considered a local (ie Khorezmian) traditional technique." The researcher, having made a comparative analysis of literary sources, comes to the conclusion that the origin of the carved majolica mosaic in Khorezm dates back to the beginning of the XIV century. His statement echoes the early conclusion of A. Yu. Yakubovsky, where the latter writes that the carved majolica mosaic was first used in the Tyurabek-Khanym mausoleum in Kunya-Urgench, built in the 20s of the XIV century. GI Tomaev's merit lies in the fact that he was the first to apply the typological principle of studying architectural ceramics not only in Central Asia, but also in Khorezm. The author studied not only the typology of architectural decoration, but also its technology. In particular, in his work, we come across the terms "terracotta", "polychromy", "tile cladding", "transparent and opaque glaze". In conclusion, it must be said that GI Tomaev argued that the carved mosaic originated in Central Asia, namely in Khorezm. As confirmation of his conclusions, he cites the Turabek-Khanym mausoleum in Kunya-Urgench. The same position is confirmed in the work of BP Denike "Architectural ornament of Central Asia". As an example, BP Denike cites the monuments of Khorezm - the Sheikh-Sheref (Tekesh) mausoleum and the Tyurabek-Khanym mausoleum. However, in the Sheikh-Sheref (Tekesh) mausoleum, the mosaic decor is indistinct and simple in form. The ornament consists of a combination of rectangles and triangles. And in the monument of Turabek-Khanym, mosaic ornament reached its peak. Thus, the origin of some types of architectural decoration (carved majolica mosaic), in the above work, led to doubts among some scholars. The researcher of the Golden Horde architectural decor L. M. Noskova does not agree with the conclusions of B. P. Denike and G. N. Tomaev and believes that there can be no question of the influence of the Khorezm mosaic on the Golden Horde mosaic (Volga region). Since, in her opinion, the mosaic appears in the Golden Horde earlier than in Central Asia.

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