Welcome to the brand new Arthive! Discover a full list of new features here.

In the year of the dragon. Where is the dragon's tomb? (continuing to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue.)

Vasily Beregovoi • Drawings and illustrations, 2024
Comments
0
About the artwork
This artwork has been added by an Arthive user, if it violates copyright please tell us.
Subject and objects: Literary scene
Technique: Pencil
Materials: Paper
Date of creation: 2024
Region: Luts'k
Location: Vasily Beregovoi

Description of the artwork «In the year of the dragon. Where is the dragon's tomb? (continuing to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue to continue.)»

"...Ti srebrniki so edini od plemenskih kovov v - Makedoniji in verjetno prvi novci nasploh, na katerih se pojavlja ime niihovega kralja, saj je na zadnji strani okoli stiridelnega inkuznega kvadrata grski napis NOMIEMA EDONEON BAEILEOE GITA (= novec edonskegakralja Geta)[1] oziroma GETA BAEILEY HDONEON (=Geta, kraljEdonov)[2]. (On this coin). Geta je bil verjetno nekoliko mtajsi sodobnik makedonskega kralja Aleksandra I.(498-454 pr. Kr.) in verjetno se legenda s kraljevim imenom pojavlja na novcu prav po makedonskem zgledu. Nekateri avtorji pripisujejo plemenu tudi kovanje srebrnikov z upodobitvijo gosi in zabe, ki so jih drugi pripisovali kovnici Ejon (Eion). Lit.H. GAEBLER, Die antiken Munzen Nordqriechenlands, Bd. III Die antiken Munzen von Makedonia undd Paionia. Berlin 1935, 144; J.N.Svoronos, L'hellenisme primitif de la Macedoine prouve par la numismatique et l'or du Pangee, Chicago 1979, 49-52; J. Jurukova, Monetni sakrovista ot baigarskite zemi. Monetite na trakijskite plemena i vladeteli, Sofia 1992,25; N. G. L. Hammond, A Histery of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550 - 336 B. C., Oxtord 1979, 76-86. (104 - 105 pages). Translated: "EDONI (EDONOI) More precisely, a non-local Thracian tribe that inhabited the area east of the lower reaches of the Strimon River and in the immediate vicinity of the Pangaean Mountains, where there were rich deposits of silver ore. The border with the tribe of Bisaltes (Bisallat) passed along the river Strymon. At the beginning of the V century BC minted octodrakm weighing about 28 g with the same image of a warrior with two bulls, which is available on the coins of Plernen - Oreskov (Oreskiora). These silver coins are the only ones from the tribal mints of Macedonia, and probably the first coins at all to bear the name of their king, for on the reverse side around the square of the engraved steridel is the Greek inscription NOMIEMA EDONEON BAEILEOE GITA ( = coin of the Edonian king Geta)[1] or GETA BEILEY HDONEON (= Geta, king of the Edonians)[2]. (On this coin). Geta was probably a somewhat younger contemporary of the Macedonian king Alexander I (498-454 BC), and it is likely that the legend with the king's name appears on the coin exactly after the Macedonian pattern. Some authors attribute to the tribe also the minting of silver coins with the image of a goose and a forget, others attributed the mint to Ejon (Eion). Lit.H. GAEBLER, Die antiken Munzen Nordkriechenlands, Bd. III Die antiken Munzen von Makedonia und Paionia. Berlin 1935, 144; J.N. Svoronos, Primitive Hellenism de la Maceduan proving numismatic and gold, Chicago, 1979, 49-52; J. Zhurukova, Monetni sakrovista ot Baigarskite zemli. Coins of Thracian tribes and rulers, Sofia 1992,25; N.G.L. Hammond, History of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550-336 BC, Oxford, 1979, 76-86. 104 - 105 pp. 3.V v vzhodni Etruriji (okoli Arezza) so izdelovali se vec serij ulitih bronastih novcev brez legende, ki jih prav zato ni mogoce pripisati doloceni kovnici. Na njihovi sprednji strani je vedno upodobljeno kolo s preckami, na zadnji strani pa so razlicne upodobitve (kolo, krater[8], amfora, itd.). Izdelovali so novce razlicnih vrednosti (od asa do uncije), vzporedno z ulitimi novci pa so novce istih tipov tudi kovali. Novce teh serijje mogoce datirati na konec 4. oziroma v 3. stolele pr. Kr. Znatilnost etrudianskih mest, ki so po grskem vzoru pricela izdelovati lastni denar, ie uporaba razlicnih teznih standardov za njihove denarne enote. Etruscanski denar je bil v obtoku iziemno izoliran, saj je v glavnern krozil le na podrocju politicnega teritorija posameznega mesta, kjer so ga kovali. Izjemoma ga najdemo tudi na sosednjih obmocjih, med drugim tudi v juzni Franciji in na podrocju zahodnega Balkana. Pripisovanje novcev posameznim kovnicam je mogoce le v primeru legende na novcu, prav tako so se vedno nereseni stevilni kronoloski problemi posameznih novcnih - emisij. Lit.-F. Catalli, Monete Etrusche, Roma 1990. (Page 115 - 116). Translation: In eastern Etruria (near Arezzo) there were several series of cast bronze coins without legends, which cannot be attributed to a specific mint. On their obverse side always depicts a wheel with spokes, and on the reverse side - various images (wheel, crater[8], amphora, etc.). Produced coins of different denominations (from an ace to an ounce), and in parallel with cast coins were minted and the same type of coins. Coins of this series can be dated to the end of IV or III century BC. A peculiarity of the Etrudian cities, which began to produce their own money on the Greek model, is the use of different weight standards for their monetary units. Etruscan money was extremely isolated in circulation, as it mostly circulated only in the political territory of the individual city where it was minted. Exceptionally, it could also be found in neighboring regions, including southern France and the Western Balkans. The attribution of coins to individual mints is possible only if there is a legend on the coin, and numerous chronological problems of individual coin issues have always remained unresolved. Lit.-F. Catalli, Moneta Etrusche, Rome, 1990. pp. 115 - 116. 4. Grski novci. Sredi 6. stoletja pr. Kr. so novce iz elektruma priceli izpodrivati srebmi novci, katerih vrednost je bilo mogoce natancneje dolociti. V 2. polovici 6. stoletja pr. Kr. so vse kovnice maloazijskih mest presle na kovanje srebrnih novcev,ki se je je nato hitro razsirilo na celinski del Grcije (tu so bile Atene ena prvih mestnih drzavic, ki je pricela kovati srebmike)[7-stater kovan v Egini okoli 500pr Kr.], nato pa se v grske kolonie v juzni Italiji in na Siciliji. V juzni Italiji je kot prva zacela delovati kovnica v mestu Syharis [8-stateriz okoli 530-500 pr. Kr], (this coin) (Page 128 - 129). Translation: Greek coins. In the middle of the 6th century BC. Kr. began to replace electrum coins with silver coins, the value of which could be determined more accurately. In the second half of the 6th century B.C. Cr. all the mints of the cities of Asia Minor switched to minting silver coins, which then spread rapidly to mainland Greece (Athens was one of the first city-states to begin minting silver coins) [7-staters minted on Aegina around 500 B.C.], and then to the Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. In southern Italy, the first mint to operate was in the city of Sycharis [8-statheriz circa 530-500 B.C. Cr], (this coin) pp. 128 - 129. 5. Ihnaji (Ichaioi) Peonsko pleme, ki je poseljevalo podrocje zahodno od reke Axios (danes podrocje okoli Koufalia v Grciji) s prestohico lchnai. Med okoli 540 in 511 pr. Kr. so v kovnici lchnai kovali srebrne oktodrahme (29.2-17.8g) [1] (this coin) in - stateie (9.5-9.2g) s podobno upodobivijo, kot jie na novcih plernen - Oreskov (Oreskioi) in - Edonov(Edones) in ki prikazuje golega mladenica med dvema voloma, napis I+NAION // kolo v irkuznem kvadratu[1]. (This coin). Na drugem tipu staterjev (didrahem) je upodobljen vojak, ki drzi vzpenjajocega se konja, napis I+NAIQN // kolo [2l. Poleg omenjenih novcev so verjetno med okoli 510 in 480 pr. Kr. kovali se oktobole[3] (this coin) in diobole[4] (this coin) with klesesesim bikom na sprednji strani in s kolesom na zadnji strani. Lit.-J.N.SVORONOS, L'hellensime primitif de la Macedoine prouce par la numismatique et l'or du Pangee, Chicago 1979, 40-46; N. G.L. HAMMOND, A Histori of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550 - 336 B. C., Oxford 1979, 75-9l. Translated: Ichaioi Peon tribe inhabiting the area west of the Axios River (today the area around Koufalia in Greece) with the prefix lchnai. Approximately between 540 and 511 BC. Cr. silver octodrachms (29.2-17.8g)[1] (This coin) and - statia (9.5-9.2g) were minted at the Lchnai mint with a similar image as on the Plernen coins - Oreskova (Oreskioi) and - Edonova( Edones) and depicting a naked young woman between two oxen, the inscription I+NAION // wheel in an iridescent square[1]. (This coin). Another type of staters (didrachm) depicts a warrior holding a riding horse, inscription I+NAIQN // wheel [2l. In addition to the mentioned coins, probably between 510 and 480 BC. Kr. octobols[3] (this coin) and diobols[4] (this coin) were minted with a carved bull on the front and a wheel on the back. Lit.-J.N.Svoronos, L'Hellensime primitif de la Macedoine prouce par la numismatique et l'or du Pangee, Chicago 1979, 40-46; N.G.L. HAMMOND, History of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550-336 B.C., Oxford 1979, 75-9l. 6.Korkyra. ...didrahme s povprecno tezo 5.5 g (sprednji del ali glava krave // cvetlicni motiv v pogloblobljenem kvadratu)[2-zgodnejsi: 500-450 pr. Kr.; 3- mlajsi: okoli 450 - 400 pr. Kr.], - drahme s povprecno teco 2.74 g (amfora // cvetlicni motiv)[4], diobole s tezo 0.94 g (sdkoljka // cvetlicni motiv) in 0.29 g tezke obole (vaza //cvetlidni motiv). Motive s tetradrahem sta v 5. stoleju pr. Kr. prevzeli tudi kovnici v obeh korkirskih kolonijah v lliriku, Dlrahij (- Dyrrhachium) in Apolonija (- Apollonia). CvetIicni motiv na zadnji strani novcev so pogosto interpretirali kot upodobitev Alkinoovega vrta, saj naj bi na Korkiri, otoku miticnega Alkinoa, v njegovi palaci dobil zatociske Odisej (Homer). (Page 183). Translated: Korkyra. ...didrachms with an average weight of 5.5 g (front or cow's head // floral motif in a recessed square)[2- Earliest: 500-450 B.C. Kr.; 3- Younger: ca. 450 - 400. bC Kr.], - drachms with an average weight of 2.74 g (amphora // floral motif)[4], diobols with a weight of 0.94 g (glass // floral motif) and 0.29 g obol (vase // floral motif) . The tetradrachmatic motifs date from the 5th century BC. Cr. also took control of the mints in the two Corcyrian colonies in Llyrica, Dlrachium (-Dyrrachium) and Apollonia (-Apollonia). The floral motif on the reverse of the coins is often interpreted as a representation of the garden of Alkinoi, since Odysseus (Homer) is said to have found refuge on Corcyra, the island of the mythical Alkinoi, in his palace. pp. 183. 7. Litra. Sicilska utezna enota (odgovarjala je - funtu kovine) in bronasti novec, ki sev grskem svetu prvic pojavi na Siciliji okoli leta 430 pr. Kr.[1]. (this coin) Deli se v 12 - uncij (uncia). Novci razlicnih vrednosti se razlikujejo po oznakah vrednosti v obliki pik (6 pik na primer oznacuje novec z vrednostjo 6 uncij = pol litre). Vrednost korintskega - staterja (z upodobivijo Pegaza na sprednji strani), ki je je bil v tem casu v obtoku tudi na Siciliji in v juzni Italiji, je znasala 10 liter. (Page 206). Translation: liter. A Sicilian unit of weight (it corresponded to a pound of metal) and bronze coin, first appearing in the Greek world in Sicily around 430 BC. The kr.[1]. (this coin) is divided into 12 ounces (oz.). Coins of different denominations are distinguished by denomination markings in the form of dots (e.g., 6 dots denote a coin with a denomination of 6 ounces = half a liter). The value of the Corinthian stater (with the image of Pegasus on the obverse), which at that time was also circulating in Sicily and Southern Italy, was 10 liters. page 206 8. On page 298 there is a black and white photo on a metal square of a typical airplane. Not described in any way. "The time of the Brahmans - people fly." 9. Sinus Rhizonicus. Kovali so tudi novce z z zvezdo s sestimi ali osmimi kraki na zadnji strani in z upodobitvijo makedonskega scita na sprednji strani novcev (s tezo 1.6 - 1 g)[3-Budva]. (This coin). Na redkih srebrnikih s tezo 0,7 g je upodobljena glava goveda in crki E II [4]. (This coin) Crke na novcih je mogoce tolmaciti kot grske zacetnice mest: E=Epitsuran(Cavtat), P=Rhizon(Risan), A=Acruuium(Kotor\, B=Buthua(Budva)in A=Leusinium (okolica Trebinja), za katera so jih kovali. - Analiza tez kaze, da so kovali novce dveh teznih sistemov, in sicer prvega s povprecno tezo 4,5 g. kar bi odgovarjalo tezi atiskih - drahem, in drugega s povprecno tezo 3,5 g, kar odgovarja tezi rimskega - viktoriata (victoriatus). Tako drahme kot viktoriati so bili tedaij v - obtoku na obalnem ilirskem podrocju, zato so omenjene povprecne teze avtonomnih srebrnikov razumljive. Podrocje obtoka teh novcev je bilo lokalno omejeno. Lit.-K.PINK, 'Lokale Pragungen aus dem Sinus Rhizonicus', Serta Hoffileriana, Zagteb 1940, 527-535. (Pages 312 - 313). Translated: Sinus Rhizonicus. Coins with a six- or eight-pointed star on the reverse side and a Macedonian slash on the obverse side (weighing 1.6 - 1 g) were also minted [3-Budva]. (This coin). Rare silver coins weighing 0.7 g depict a cattle head and the letters E II [4]. (This coin) The letters on the coins can be interpreted as the Greek initials of the cities: E=Epitsuran (Cavtat), P=Rison (Risan), A=Akruium (Kotor), B=Buthua (Budva) and A= Leusinius (Trebinje district), for which they were minted, corresponds to the thesis of the Roman victoriatus.Both drachms and victoriates were then in circulation in the coastal Illyrian area, so the mentioned middle theses of the autonomous silver coins are understandable. The area of circulation of these coins was locally limited.Lit.-K.PINK, 'Lokale Pragungen aus dem Sinus Rhizonicus', Serta Hoffileriana, Zagteb 1940, 527-535. pp. 312 - 313. 10. TINTENI (TYNTENOI) Peonsko pleme, ki ni patapseje locirano, vendar je verjetno poseljevalo rodgosje rudnika Resen v danasnji Republiki Makedoniji. Med okoli 540 in 510 je kovalo 29,8 g tezke oktodrahme [1] (this coin) in okoli 9,3 g tezke - staterje [2]. (this coin) Upodobitve na novcih so podobne kot na novcih trako-makedonskega plemena - Ihnaiev. Na sprednji strani je mladenic s konjem, na zadnji strani kolo. Na tezkih novcih je na sprednji strani upodobljen moz med voloma, na zadnji strani kolo. Na novcih je napis TYNTENON. Lit.-J.N. SVORONOS, L'hellenisme primitif de la Macedoine prouove par la numismatique et l'or du Pangee, Chicago 1979,46-48; J.JURUKOVA, Monetni sakrovista ot balgarskite zemi. Monetite na trakijskite plemena i viadeteti, Sofia 1992, 17-33; N. G. L. HAMMOND, A History of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550 - 336 B.C., Oxford 1979, 74-85. (Pages 343 - 344). Translated: TYNTENOS (TYNTENOI) A tribe of peons not precisely located, but probably inhabiting the area of the Resen mine in today's Republic of Macedonia. Between 540 and 510, octodrakhms weighing 29.8 g [1] (this coin) and staters weighing about 9.3 g [2] were minted. (this coin) The images on the coins are similar to those on the coins of the Thracian-Macedonian tribe, the Ichnaeans. On the front is a young woman with a horse, on the back is a bicycle. The heavy coins depict a man between oxen in the front and a wheel in the back. The coins bear the inscription TYNTENON. Lit.-J.N. SWORONOS, Primitive Hellenism de la Macedoana made for numismatics and Pangea gold, Chicago, 1979, 46-48; Ya.YURUKOVA, Monetary Treasure of the Bulgarian Land. Coinetites and Thracian tribes and Viadetes, Sofia, 1992, 17-33; N. G. L. HAMMOND, History of Macedonia, Vol. II. 550-336 BC, Oxford, 1979, 74-85. pp. 343 - 344. 11. Tressis.V - denarnem sistemu rimske republike bronasti uliti novec iz skupine - aes grave vrednosti treh - asov. Pojavlja se kratek cas v 1. polovici 3. stoletja pr. Kr. Na sprednji strani je upodobljena Roma, na zadnji strani pa ima kolo s preckami. Na obeh straneh novca je oznaka vrednosti III. Lit.-E.J.HAEBERLIN, Aes Grave, Frankfurt 1910,58. (Page 358). Translated: tressis B - monetary system of the Roman Republic, a bronze cast coin from the group - aes grave with a denomination of three - ace. Appears for a short time in the first half of the 3rd century BC. Kr. Roma is depicted on the front, and on the back it has a wheel with spokes. On both sides of the coin there is a mark of denomination III. Lit.-E.J. HABERLIN, Aes Grave, Frankfurt, 1910,58. pp. 358. It seems logical that for the development of such a planetary system associated with the constellation of the Dragon, the dragon officials needed their own coinage system. For, as it turns out, they had their own palaces. And he continued reading, "Dragon palaces. According to the Genko shakusho, the Chinese monk Jian Zhen, crossing the sea on his way to Japan, was invited by the dragon king to visit his palace and preach to him. Having fulfilled his request, the monk continued his journey and finally (in 762) arrived in Kyushu (then called Dazaifu). The famous legend of Tovara Toda, which we find in the Hontyo kaidan koji, is a mixture of Chinese and Indian motifs. It narrates as follows. At Hidesato Shrine, a Shinto shrine near Seta Bridge in Omi Province, Tawara Toda 俵藤太, "Toda the rice bag," is honored along with Suifushin 水府神, "the Deity of the Water Division." If you bring a millipede (mukade) to this temple, the animal will immediately die, and here's the reason why. In the old days, when Fujiwara no Hidesato (who lived in the first half of the 10th century) was crossing a bridge, a large snake lay across it. The hero, however, was not in the least frightened, and calmly stepped over the monster, which immediately disappeared into the water and returned in the guise of a beautiful woman. She said that she had lived under this bridge for two thousand years, but had never seen a brave man like him. So she asked him to destroy her enemy, the huge millipede that had killed her sons and grandsons. Hidesato promised her this and, armed with bow and arrow, waited for the millipede on the bridge. From the top of Mikami-yama two bright sources of light appeared as if they were two hundred torches. They were the millipede's eyes, and Hidesato sent three arrows in its direction, after which the light went out and the beast died. The dragon-woman, filled with joy and gratitude, took the hero with her to the beautiful palace of the dragons, where she treated him to fine meals and gave him a piece of silk, a sword, armor, a temple bell, and a sack (tawara) of rice. She said that the silk would always remain, no matter how much he cut off from the piece, and the sack of rice would never be empty. As for the temple bell, it was the greatest treasure in the dragon palace. After returning to the human world, Hidesato took the bell to Miidera, a famous Buddhist monastery near Otsu in Omi Province. One day it was stolen by a monk from Hieizan, but since it made no sound other than the words, "I want to return to Miidera," he angrily threw it into the valley (references: 鑑真, Kanshin. The text says only, "he went to the palace to the dragon," but the commentator has explained the reason for this. Millipedes, according to Chinese belief, are the deadly enemies of snakes; of the ability to kill snakes and are so great that they are considered an excellent remedy for reptiles, and are also used to cure diseases caused by ku witchcraft. In a later version of this legend, he is given a box of white wood with sides of three or four suns, called a daebako, 出米箱, "a box giving out rice." It was placed in the attic, and if anyone put another box under it and, pointing to the upper one, said, "Rice for tomorrow for so many persons," the next morning the specified amount of rice would be in the lower box. This marvelous thing remained in the family for many generations, retaining the ability to bestow rice, until one day it was taken downstairs to be cleaned and dropped by mistake on the stones in the garden. Then it split open and a dead white snake fell out of it. After this the rice never appeared again, but both the box and the snake are still kept by the family), where it was found by monks from Miidere and returned to the monastery. Then a small snake appeared, wagged its tail at the cracks in the body of the bell, and those immediately disappeared, so that the precious thing became exactly the same as before. The Taiheiki, where the legend of Tawara Toda is also given, tells us that the bell was stolen during the war between Miidera and Hieizan, when the former monastery was on fire, and that it fell to pieces in a valley, but the snake restored it in one night. The snake was probably a female dragon, or a messenger from the dragon palace. In Taiheika's version, the snake that Hidesato met on the bridge turned out to be not a woman, but a strange little man; it was the Dragon King himself. The hero was called Tawara Toda, "Toda the rice sack", after the name of this marvelous rice sack. Yuho meisho ryaku (1697) mentions a Buddhist monk named Nanjo, who lived in the Enkyu era (1069-1073), praying for three years at Kumano Gongen Temple to gain a deep understanding of Buddhist teachings. Finally, he learned in a dream from divine revelation that if he went to a large and deep lake on Mount Kotowake near the borders of Hitachi and Mutsu provinces, he would turn into a dragon and live a long life. Overjoyed at the success of his supplications, he followed the divine advice and settled in a dugout by the lake, where he spent his days reading sutras and leading an austere, ascetic life. However, a dragon-woman who visited him daily in the form of a beautiful woman to listen to the recitation of the sutras, fell in love with him and invited him to the dragon palace at the bottom of the lake. He followed her, carrying with him eight scrolls of sutras, and went on to live with the woman in a luxurious mansion, where he turned eight-headed dragon (according to the number of scrolls he had brought with him). One could often hear his voice reciting sutras in the lake. About three ri from that place there is another lake at Nuka-ga taka, which was formerly inhabited by a nine-headed dragon. This was the husband of the above-mentioned dragon-woman, and when his place was taken by the eight-headed rival (turned servant), he went to the other lake, where he had a battle with the offender, but was killed. For this reason no more dragons live in the lake Nuka-ga takae. Finally, we may mention the name first given to the starfish for the reason that it resembles the shape of a spindle for winding thread, namely Ryugu no Itomaki, "the spindle of the dragon palace". In order to somehow keep the dragon heritage from being squandered after the center shifted from the constellation of the Dragon to the constellation of the Little Bear, he believes many things were invented, including: "Dragon curses. In Shintyomonshu, dragon curses are mentioned in the following passages. "In the olden days, it was said that the guardian deity of Ryumon Temple, a Buddhist shrine where services were held primarily for the deceased relatives of Mr. Mogami Gengoro, in Dewa Province, was a dragon. One day the stone wall of this shrine fell down, so that many people had to work there picking up stones, when suddenly a snake, six or seven inches long, appeared from under the stones; it was chased and killed. Those who killed it immediately felt dizzy and died on the spot; others who only chased it were sick for fifty, or sixty days. The body of the snake, the records say, is now placed in the temple of Keio opposite Asakusa in Edo." Equally cruel was the curse of another dragon in the form of a snake. The house of the headman of a village called Ryo no ike, or "Dragon Pond" in the Uma district of Iyo Province, was believed to have been built over a body of water in which a dragon had lived in ancient times. A garden pond with a side of three or four shaku, reminiscent of that body of water, never dried up, even in times of drought. On the 15th day of the 7th month (Ullambana, Bon - Feast of the Dead), in 1638, villagers were dancing (bon-odori, or "bon dance") in that garden and making such a noise that they did not immediately hear the master of the house calling for help. Running into the room, they found him standing in the dark, holding by the throat an animal that had swallowed the arm of an eight-year-old child. They chopped the beast into pieces, but it grew larger and larger until it filled the entire room. It was a huge snake, but it had entered the room through a small opening, which was only big enough for a worm. There was a mark in the sand by the pond, a thin line showing that the dragon had crawled out of the pond in the shape of an earthworm. Soon the monster's terrible curse fell upon them, as the entire family, over seventy people, died one by one, except for one blind singer-songwriter, who told the whole story later. The man whose ship had come upon a huge snake thirteen ken in length killed the monster with his sword, and, to escape its curse, cut its torso into three pieces, buried them together with its head, and ordered prayers for the soul of the slain animal. But all was in vain, for thirteen years later, on the same day of the same month, and even at the same hour, he exclaimed: "I drink water!", choked and died. The people were convinced that his death was due to the action of a snake. This water snake was, of course, a dragon." He went on to read about imaginary or real dragon remains, "Dragon remains preserved in Buddhist temples. In Noda, Mikawa Province, there is a Buddhist temple called Senryu-in, or 'Dragon Spring Temple' (泉龍院), where three dragon skulls are kept. Before the temple was built, its founder, Morin Shōnin, prayed at the site nightly, and each time a beautiful (reference: 龍門寺, "Dragon Gate Temple") woman came to hear him, until she finally took her natural form as a huge snake that jumped into a nearby pond and disappeared. A monk who felt compassion for the creature filled the pond and built a shrine over it. Three skulls left behind by the dragon are preserved in the shrine. One of the treasures of another Buddhist temple called Ryugenji, or 'Dragon Spring Temple' (龍源寺) in the village of Hagi, Mikawa Province, is a tooth of the 'hidden dragon' (潜龍, senryu) presented by the monk Shutei." How everything was forgotten and was forgotten is vividly and colorfully shown in 1902, where in his opinion they stopped understanding what was going on: "In Bukkyo Iroha jiten Miura Kensuke, in the article Ryuge-e, 龍華絵, or "Dragon Flower Gathering", we read that when Maitreya "leaves the world and finds the truth of Buddha", he will gather a huge crowd and expound his teachings. Then all the trees on earth will take the form of golden dragons and open their flowers. Such is the significance of the religious gathering mentioned above." "...and in the thirteenth century and later, no one hesitated any longer, explaining the ancient legends of the gods in their own way, often using the words 'Dragon God', and 'Dragon King'." The following passages illustrate this tendency. Goukansho (before 1225) tells us that Itsukushima no Myojin (厳島ノ明神 goddess of Itsukushima Island in the Inland Sea) was believed to be the daughter of the Dragon King, reborn as Antoku Tenno, the unfortunate emperor who drowned in his seventh year during the battle of Dan-no-ura (1185). His grandmother, Nii no ama, widow of Kiyomori, jumped overboard with the little emperor when she saw that the battle was lost. Thus the Dragon King's daughter returned to her father. We find the details of this legend in the Gampai seisuiki (c. 1250), where it is said that this goddess was the granddaughter of Amaterasu, the Sun Goddess, and the daughter of the Dragon King Sagara. Elsewhere in the same work, the reason why the dragon was reborn as Antoku Tenno is given. As we read there, the retired Emperor Go-Shirakawa searched fruitlessly for the sword of Kusanagi, one of the three regalia of the imperial family, which Susano-no Mikoto found in the tail of the eight-headed serpent Yamato-no Orochi. After praying at Kamo Shrine for seven days, he had a divine revelation in a dream that this sword could be found at the bottom of the sea at Dan-no-ura, and two local divers, Oimatsu and Wakamatsu, mother and daughter, were ordered to search for it. As a result of this dream, Yoshitsune was sent to Dan-no-ura, and the two women were ordered to dive for the sword. They obeyed and remained underwater for a whole day (!) Then they surfaced, and the mother said that down there was a very strange place that could not be entered without the powerful support of the Buddha; therefore she needed Nyoho-kyo, a sutra to be transcribed and wrapped around her body. Immediately, a large number of revered monks were gathered and rewrote the sutra; the woman wrapped it around her body and dived in again. This time she remained underwater for at least one day and one night, and again surfaced without her sword. Yoshitsune asked what she had seen, but she replied that she could tell one emperor about it. So he brought her to Kyoto, where she reported the following to the emperor. She entered the gates of a grand structure, evidently the palace of the Dragon King, and when she said that she had come as a messenger from the Emperor of Japan to ask for a precious sword, two women led her into a garden, to an old pine tree, where she could look into a room through half-raised curtains (sudare). There she saw a large serpent, twenty shaku in length, with a sword in its mouth, and in the rings of its body a child of seven or eight years of age. The eyes of the beast were large and shone like the sun and moon, and the red tongue was incessantly (ref. 婆竭羅, Shakatsura, i.e., Sagara, one of the eight Great Dragon Kings. ...Sagara's daughter, eight years old, became a Buddha under the guidance of Manjushri) in motion. The serpent said to the woman, "Tell the emperor that this sword does not belong to Japan, but to the Dragon Palace. My second son, expelled from the palace for a disreputable offense, was turned by an eight-headed serpent at the headwaters of the Hi River in Izumo (Yamato no Orochi) and was killed by Susanoo, who took the sword out of the serpent's tail and gave it to Amaterasu. In the reign of Emperor Keiko (71-130), when Prince Yamato-dake subdued the barbarians, Amaterasu gave the sword to Utsuki-no-miya, who gave it to the prince. Then my second son took the form of a large snake, ten shaku in length, and lay down in the path of Yamato-dake at the foot of Ibukiyama (in the province of Omi) to frighten the prince and take away the sword. The prince, however, was not afraid of the snake and stepped over it, thus upsetting my son's plans. Finally, he was reborn as Emperor Antoku and jumped into the sea with the sword, which he returned to me. This child is my son in human form, and the sword I hold in my mouth is the one you ask for. But I cannot give him to the emperor." On receiving this message, Go-Shirakawa was greatly distressed, and thought that the precious object was lost to him. This was not the case, however, for the real sword was preserved in the Great Sanctuary (Daijingu) at Ise, and Antoku's sword was only a copy. How strange that the Dragon King did not know this! Another legend linked Kusanagi's sword to the Dragon King in a different way. In 674, a Korean monk stole the sword from the Shinto temple of Atsuta in Owari Province and hid it under his cloak. However, a dark cloud descended in front of the temple, took the treasure and put it back in the shrine. The monk, after praying for a hundred days, stole the sword again and fled to the province of Omi. And again the dark cloud appeared, took away the robber's loot and flew away with it in the eastern direction (to Atsuta). The third time the theft seemed to be successful, as the monk managed to smuggle the sword aboard a ship bound for Korea, but suddenly a violent storm arose, throwing the ship off course. In desperation, the Korean threw the sword into the sea, where it was picked up by the Dragon King and returned to Atsuta. (Refs: In other versions of the legend, it was his daughter. 厳宮. In the original legend, Amaterasu gave the sword to her grandson Ninigi. Yamato-dake used it later in a war with the barbarians, and after his death the sword was placed in the Shinto temple of Atsuta in Owari Province)." What he found interesting was this: "In the Gempei seisuiki we find the following remarkable account. "In the time of Emperor Yuryaku (the twenty-second emperor, 457-479), His Majesty had a high-ranking vassal named Oshibe Sukaru. One day, when this man entered the palace of Hatsuse Asakura and the apartments of the emperor who was staying there, the latter was in intimate relations with the empress. As at that moment thunder rumbled, the governor, ashamed of having been taken by surprise, and in order to get rid of the visitor, ordered him to invite the roaring thunder (into the palace). The vassal, having received the supreme command, left the palace and rode on horseback along the road from Abe-no Yamada to Toyora-dera, looking up into the sky and shouting: "You deity of Thunder roaring in the sky, His Majesty orders you to go down!" The thunder, however, continued to recede, and only its echo rolled through the air. Then Sukaru spurred his horse again and exclaimed: "Though thou art the Deity of Thunder, yet thou roarest in the skies of Japan. How dare you disobey an imperial order?" Then with a loud noise, the Dragon King returned and descended to the ground between Toyora-dera and Iyoka. Sukaru immediately summoned the Shinto servants, ordered them to put the Dragon King into a carriage chair, and returned to the palace. When he reported what had happened to the emperor, Thunder raised his scales, looked at the palace with wide-open eyes, and his radiance illuminated the entire structure. This sight startled His Majesty, and after making all kinds of offerings to the Thunder Deity, he immediately sent him back to the place where he had come down. It is now called 'Thunder Hill' (Ikazuchi-no okaka)." (ref: The deity of Mount Ibuki took the form of a large serpent, but the prince stepped over it and continued on his way. Then the deity "chased the clouds and caused an icy rain"). This is a very old legend, which we find in the Nihongi and in the Ryoi-ki. The Nihongi version is as follows: - "In the seventh year of Emperor Yuryaku's reign (463), on the third day of the seventh month, His Majesty said to Oshibe no Sukaru, the minister of state (muraji, 連): 'I wish to see the appearance of the god of Mimoro Hill (Mimoro no oka, also called Mimoro Mountain). Since you are superior to the others in strength, you will go and, having personally caught him, bring him here.' Sukaru replied, 'I will try to do so,' and climbing up Mimoro Hill, he caught a large snake (大蛇), which he showed to the emperor. Since the latter was not performing religious abstinence (in honor of the deity), the divine thunder rumbled and his eyes glistened. The emperor was frightened, closed his eyes and did not look at the god, but hid in the back of the palace and ordered the snake to be released back to the hill. For this reason, the emperor changed the name of the deity to 'Ikazuchi' ('Lightning Strike')." As for the Ryoi-ki, the same details are given as in the Gampai seisuiki, which apparently borrowed the entire legend. However, instead of "Dragon King" or "Dragon God," the ancient work simply calls the deity "Thunder God" (雷神), which shows that the identification of this deity with the Dragon King dates from a later period. The author of the Gampei seisuiki, in translating the old text into modern Japanese, followed the ideas of his age, and, changing the combination "Thunder God," which once left unchanged, to "Dragon King" in one place, and "Dragon Deity" in the second, he added the words, "Stretched his scales and opened his eyes wide." The fact that Nihongi speaks of a mountain deity in the form of a serpent made the identification with a dragon quite logical. The author of the Gempei seisuiki omitted the last part of the legend, which appears in the Ryoi-ki as follows: "Afterward, when Sukaru died, the emperor by his decree ordered the funeral to be postponed for seven days and seven nights. He praised him for his devotion, and ordered that the tomb should be placed on the same spot where Thunder descended. Over the tomb he erected a stone monument with the following inscription: 'This is the tomb of Sukaru, the catcher of Thunder'. Thunder, angry at this insult, came down with loud booms and struck heavily at the stone monument, but while he was striking at it, (the spirit of Sukaru) seized him. When the emperor heard of this, he released Thunder, who did not die, but, utterly stunned, remained there seven days and seven nights. The emperor ordered another stone monument to be built with the following inscription: 'This is the tomb of Sukaru, who in life and after death captured Thunder'. This is the reason that in the days of the old capital (i.e., the capital of Suiko Tenno, Owarida no Miya, 小治田宮; Empress Suiko ruled 593-628) this place was called 'Thunder Hill'." We find a similar modification of an old text by the author of the Gapei seisuiki in the legend of Prince Yamato-dake, who, when his ship was capsized by windy and stormy weather on the way from Musashi to Kazusa Province, was rescued by his talented concubine Ototo Tashibana-hime, who jumped into the sea, making a sacrifice to the Dragon God for the prince, thereby calming the turbulent waves. This legend is borrowed from Nihonga, but there we read only of Watatsumi no Kami, the "Sea Deity" (海神). The dragon burrow at Gion Shrine. A dragon burrow in a Shinto temple is mentioned in the Joku Kojidan. This burrow was said to have been in the hoden ("treasure hall" where the shintai, or "divine bodies") in Kyoto's Gion Shrine. In 1221, when the temple was destroyed by fire, Nashimoto, the chief Buddhist abbot (zasu) of Hieizan attempted to measure the depth of the burrow, but even at the 50-jo (500-siaku) mark, the bottom was never reached. Another account in the same work speaks of a tree elf in the form of a willow snake called jia-yanagi, 蛇柳, or "snake willow," at Koya-san. It was a large snake, or dragon, that had lived on the sacred mountain from long ago, until Kobo Daishi forced it to move away from there to a distance of about half a mile. He made the demon promise to do so by inflicting poisonous snakes on its (the demon's) body, so that it suffered immensely and willingly withdrew. After that Kobo Daishi forbade to bring flutes to the mountain for fear that their sounds, which resembled a dragon's cry, might attract the serpent and make it return to its former habitat. A monk told Hideyoshi about this when he stopped on the mountain as a pilgrim and ordered a famous actor from the Noh theater whom he had brought with him to give a performance. The monk warned him not to raise the dragon by playing the flute, but Hideyoshi only laughed at him. However, as soon as the sounds of the flute rang through the mountain, the clear sky was covered with clouds that soon enveloped the entire land. A fierce storm shook the mountains and valleys; trees were torn up by the roots, and rain poured down in continuous streams. Hideyoshi, frightened by such terrible signs of the dragon's presence, fled from the monastery and hid in a small house at the foot of the mountain. When about two hours had passed, the storm subsided, but Hideyoshi never again doubted Kobo's wisdom. According to Hontyo jokugenshi, one of the seven wonders of the famous Shinto shrine of Suwa-myojin at Lake Suwa (諏訪湖, Suwa-ko), where Tenryu-gawa (天龍川, "River of the Heavenly Dragon") begins, is Tenryu-no-ido, or "Well of the Heavenly Dragon" (天龍ノ井). From the hanging roof of the temple, water always dripped into this well, and this phenomenon was attributed to the dragon. When Khubilai Khan's armada attacked Japan, the god Suwa flew in the form of a long five-colored cloud, resembling a snake, from the lake to the West to help the Japanese fight the invading foreigners. In the neighborhood of the same "Heavenly Dragon River" in Totomi Province, a large dragon head was preserved in the Buddhist temple of Zuda-dera (頭陀寺). It was brought to Edo and shown to the people there. The name of the river is believed to have come from this dragon. Another Shinto temple, Kurikara Myo-oh, 倶梨迦羅明王, was dedicated to a mountain deity in the form of a dragon, who was believed to reside in a waterfall on Mount Oyama in Sagami Province. As Nihon shūkyō fūzoku shi (1902) tells us, in ancient times, the Buddhist monk Ryōben was praying there one day when suddenly a violent storm broke out and the water in the earth's crevice boiled. A huge dragon emerged from it and said to the monk: "I am the guardian deity of the mountain. Having heard your prayers, I wish to serve the Buddha." Then Ryōben bowed to the dragon, and afterward a small Shinto shrine dedicated to the dragon was built on that spot, which was called in Buddhist "Kurikara Myō-ō," "Kurikara, King of Light" (i.e., Vidya-raja, where the word "light" is used to signify [mystical] Knowledge, vidya). This was apparently the original Japanese dragon-shaped mountain god, whom Buddhists identified with the dragon-like form of Fudo Myo-o; however, the Shinto temple remained as his shrine. Kurikara, as we read in Bukkyo iroha jiten Miura, is the "Samaya"(三魔耶)-form of Myo-o, a black dragon wrapped around a sword. DRAGON LANTERNS. Among the many ignes fatui of Japan, Dragon Lanterns (ryuto, 龍燈) occupy an important place. In most cases they rise from the sea and fly from there to the mountains, where they are seen hanging from some special old pine trees, or cryptomeria in front of (most often) Buddhist temples. In regard to these lanterns, the old pines are especially notable because on them hang offerings of sea dragons to the deities, or buddhas, or bodhisattvas worshipped in these temples. There are an inordinate number of legends which speak of dragon lanterns appearing on the seashore of Japan. To ascertain human conceptions in this respect it may be sufficient to cite a few passages, as they all resemble each other, and are based on the same conclusions. There is no mention of dragon lanterns in the old annals; nor do we find any mention of them in other works written before the fourteenth century. In the Kigegawa Yakushi engi the following is said: "The image of Yakushi Nyorai at Jyokoji (also called Shoryūzan, 青龍山, "Blue Dragon Monastery"), in the Katsushika district, Shimosa Province, was made by Dengyo Daishi. When Jikaku Daishi stopped at Asakusa-dera (the famous Kannon Shrine in Asakusa, a well-known area of Edo), a gray-haired old man appeared to him and said: 'There is a holy place in the northeast where I have consecrated a marvelous image made by Dengyo Daishi.' Thereupon the man disappeared, and Jikaku went outside and looked to the northeast. Suddenly a happy cloud (瑞雲, zui-in, a cloud with happy colors) appeared, and a blue dragon was seen in it. Then Daishi secretly left the temple and went in search of that blue dragon until he came to the structure, (where the above-mentioned old man who had received that image lived). Then he bowed to the image and saw the blue dragon still there. Jikaku turned to the happy cloud and, turning to the dragon, uttered the following: 'I would like to say a few words to you, holy dragon, listen to me. I want to build a temple here, which you are to guard and protect from calamities. From now on, I am appointing you as the guardian deity of the temple'. When Daishi finished speaking, the dragon, who had been listening motionless all this time with its head respectfully lowered, disappeared. The monk considered this a good sign, and named the shrine 'Blue Dragon Temple'. To this day, a dragon lantern occasionally appears there as a miraculous, good omen, probably in connection with the above (i.e., because the blue dragon is the temple's guardian deity)." From the Edo meisho ki we learn that from ancient times many pilgrims went to this temple; it is also called Jokoji (浄光寺, "Temple of Pure Light"), to glorify the dragon lantern which invariably appears before the image of Yakushi Nyorai on the eighth day of each month and on the morning of the New Year. In the Tomioka Hachiman shaki, "History of the Shinto Shrine of Hachiman in Tomioka," we read that in 1628 the spirit of Kobo Daishi appeared in a dream to a monk of the Shingon school and ordered all the ministers of that school in Kanto, with the exception of the heads of Koya and Sekigaku, to assemble at Eitaijima (in Edo). They followed the order of the saint and performed the ceremonies for ninety days without interruption. At the same time, they erected a temple dedicated to the spirit of Kobo Daishi (Mikage-do), and from that time a dragon lantern began to appear in front of it. In Jigen Daishi den 慈眼大師傳, a biography of Jigen Daishi, i.e., the Buddhist abbot of Tenkai 天海, whom Ieyasu greatly respected, who died in 1643, there is the following passage. - "On the evening of the second day of the eleventh month of the twelfth year of the twelfth year of the Kang'ei era (1643) a special service was held (for the sake of the
the dragon lantern rose from the well and hung from the top of the cryptomeria at the south wall of the kyukuden ("reception hall" of the temple). Monks and laymen stared at the light in amazement and worshipped it. Immediately, a fast-footed messenger was sent to Nikko temple to announce what had happened, and everyone was overwhelmed with admiration (for Jigen's holiness, since his spirit was believed to be clearly connected to the light, as in the case of Kobo Daishi in the previous legend)." The so-called "Dragon Lantern Pines" (ryuto no matsu, 龍燈松) that stood in front of Buddhist temples, and on whose branches dragon lanterns were said to regularly appear, are very often mentioned. Here and there we read of such trees standing in front of Shinto shrines, but the overwhelming number of passages in which they are mentioned, as well as dragon lanterns in general, refer to Buddhist temples. In front of the Monju (Manjushri) chapel, called Monjudo (文殊堂), at Ama no Hashidate (one of the Nihon sankei, the three most beautiful places in Japan) in the Yosa district of Tango Province, located near what is known as Kujue no to, or Kire to, stood a "dragon lantern pine tree." At midnight on the sixteenth day of each month, a dragon lantern appeared from the northeastern sea and flew to this tree; at night on the sixteenth day of the first, fifth, and ninth months, another source of light called the "Heavenly Lantern" (tento, 天燈) descended from the sky. And a third source called "Ise no go toto," or "The Most Holy Light of Ise," mentioned in Yuho meisho ryaku774 (1697), where it is called shinto (神燈, "Sacred Light"), created by the deity from Daizingu to Ise (Amaterasu), was seen in the same place. The image of the bodhisattva Manjushri (Monju bosatsu) worshipped there was thought to be of Indian origin, having emerged from the sea. The same temple is mentioned in the Kii dzodanshu, where we read the following details concerning this light: - "It arose from a deep place in the sea, two tö from the 'Developed Door' (Kire-tō) in Hashidate, where the gate to the dragon's palace was believed to be. In good weather, when the wind and waves are calm, it passes from Kire-to to Monju Shrine. Unbelievers cannot see it, or, if they do, they think it is produced by some fisherman's lantern. He stops at the top of a high (Refs: Strangely realistic, in view of these passages, are the words from the Ensei meibutsu kohoi (Chap. VIII), quoted on the same page of the Ryuan zuihitsu: "The devil fireflies (kirin, 鬼燐) and dragon lanterns that appear over swamps, ponds, wide plains, mountain temples, tombs, and so forth are 'zwavelstofgas' coming out of the decaying bodies of animals and plants." The word "zwavelstofgas" written in kana is Dutch in origin and means "zwavelwaterstofgas," i.e., sulfur hydroxide) of a pine tree located about 20 ken from Monjudo. After half an hour, or less, it goes out. From time to time, a boy is seen at the top of this tree holding a lamp in his hand, called tendo, 天灯, "Heavenly Lantern" (this word can also be written 天童, tendo, "Heavenly Boy"). Before, this boy (angel) appeared often, but now it is rare." Nihon shukyo fuzoku shi, (1902) mentions an old "Dragon Lantern Pine" that still stands near a Shinto temple called Uhara jinja (宇原神社), in Karida village, Kyoto district, Budzen province. There Toyotama-bime, the daughter of a sea deity in the form of a dragon gave birth to a son, and at the same time the light (of the dragon lantern) flew out of the sea and hung on the same pine tree. We may mention here another Shinto temple, Shirahige jinja (白鬚神社) in the Shiga district of Omi province, where the dragon lantern was said to have entered the worship hall (haiden) from time to time instead of hanging on a pine tree; and Jogu (常宮), a Shinto temple in Tsuruga, Etizen Province, where such a light appeared every New Year's Eve in the "Dragon Lantern Pine" that stood in the temple garden. In front of the Kasai Yakushi Buddhist Chapel (笠井薬師), located on a mountain north of Okayama, in Bijen Province, stood the "Dragon Lantern Pine". Every night, especially in summer, wandering lights were seen there. On the summit of Kaneyama, a mountain very close to the above-mentioned Kasai Yakushi Chapel, there was a large stone with a hole in it, about a shaku square. When the tide was high, this hole would fill with water, and when it was low, it would dry up. It seems that these stones were thought to be connected with dragons sending dragon lanterns, for also at Cape Sata in Hara district, Tosa province (30 ri west of Kochi) at the same time (1746) was the so-called Ushio-ishi (潮石), or "Tide Stone," concave, filled with water at high tide and emptied at low tide, and in the same place, near the Shinto temple of Ashizuri-no-Myojin (蹉跎ノ明神), a dragon lantern would emerge from the sea at the same time as the Divine Light (tento, 天燈) descended from the sky. The latter was one of the seven miracles of that place. Another of these wonders was the dragon-horse, which came out sometimes at the hour of the bull (01-03 h.) and ate the shoots of bamboo, which for this reason gradually withered in the vicinity of the temple. The connection between tide stones and dragons immediately reminds us of the legends of Toyotama-hiko, the sea god who gave the tide treasure to Hiko-hohodemi, and of Empress Jingu, who was helped by the gods Kasuga and Kawakami with the high and low tide jewels taken from Sagara, the Dragon King. Toyuki kohen says the following about a temple of the Zen school in the Niikawa district, Ettyu Province, called Gammokujang (眼目山), or Sakkajang. When this temple was opened by its founder, the monk Daitetsu, a disciple of Dogen (道元, Shoyo Daishi, 1200-1253), he was assisted by the mountain god and the dragon god, manifesting all sorts of miracles. Back in the author's time (the second half of the 18th century), every year on the 13th day of the 7th month (probably the date of the opening of the temple), two light sources appeared on the top of a pine tree in the temple garden. One of them (belonging to the mountain god) came from the top of Mount Tateyama, and the other (of the dragon god) rose from the sea, and both stopped on the pine tree. They were called Mountain Light and Dragon Lantern (Santo, Ryuto); they were seen every year by the neighborhood people. "Although," says Tachibana Nankei, "there are many instances of dragon lanterns emerging from the sea, it rarely happens at the same time as the Mountain Light, and even on the same pine tree, as in the case of this temple.
Continuation follows. Beregovoy V.I. "In the Year of the Dragon. Where is the Tomb of the Dragon?"



Comments