Этот воистину уникальный стиль эпохи барокко был назван в честь Караваджо – художника-реформатора, основателя реализма. И кто сегодня вспомнит, что в юности он совершил убийство?.. Несмотря на жизнь в бегах, художник успел обрасти кругом учеников и последователей – караваджистов. Направление развивалось в Италии конца XVI-начала XVII веков, а также в Голландии, Германии и Испании.
Караваджизм

Rembrandt, Rubens and Velázquez went through their stage of caravaggism
This truly unique style of the Baroque era was named after Caravaggio, a reformer artist, the founder of realism. Who remembers today that he committed a murder in his youth? Despite his life on the run, the artist managed to gather a circle of students and followers — caravaggists. The trend developed in Italy at the late 16th — early 17th centuries, as well as in Holland, Germany and Spain. Read more
, but later they proceeded to their individual styles.
The main features of caravaggism
This truly unique style of the Baroque era was named after Caravaggio, a reformer artist, the founder of realism. Who remembers today that he committed a murder in his youth? Despite his life on the run, the artist managed to gather a circle of students and followers — caravaggists. The trend developed in Italy at the late 16th — early 17th centuries, as well as in Holland, Germany and Spain. Read more
are maximum realism
Realism (from late Latin reālis — “real”) is considered to be the beginning in the development of modern art. In a strict sense, “realism” is an art movement that faithfully and objectively reproduces reality in all its details, regardless of how beautiful are the objects in the picture. Read more
, the absence of theatrical surroundings (elegant costumes, fluffy dresses, baroque
The baroque style replaced the Renaissance, and it sought to shock the soul, in contrast to the Renaissance art, which kept the distance between an artwork and the audience. It surely succeeded: the pictorial pearls of those times are the true treasures. Read more
curls, and so on), maximum volume rendering of the figures, and a sharp contrast of light and shadow — the chiaroscuro technique invented by Caravaggio.
The pictures are painted on a dark background, the silhouettes of people are light. Gloomy colours prevail: brown, black, purple, sometimes dark green — it seems that the action of the picture takes place in a poorly lit room. There are no airy creamy bright colours in the paintings — this is the main difference from other trends of the Baroque
The baroque style replaced the Renaissance, and it sought to shock the soul, in contrast to the Renaissance art, which kept the distance between an artwork and the audience. It surely succeeded: the pictorial pearls of those times are the true treasures. Read more
era.
Микеланджело Меризи де Караваджо. Гадалка
Гадалка
1596, 115×150 см

Tragedy is often present on the canvases - in poses, facial expressions, and subjects


Tenebrism is a separate branch of caravaggism
This truly unique style of the Baroque era was named after Caravaggio, a reformer artist, the founder of realism. Who remembers today that he committed a murder in his youth? Despite his life on the run, the artist managed to gather a circle of students and followers — caravaggists. The trend developed in Italy at the late 16th — early 17th centuries, as well as in Holland, Germany and Spain. Read more
. Tenebrists developed the caravaggist principles to the most extreme manifestations: their dark colours clearly prevail over light ones, there are many bright light contrasts that emphasize the depicted drama. The ideal work of a tenebrist should look like this: a white skull on dark fabric looking as realistic as possible.
Хосе де Рибера. Магдалена Вентура с мужем и сыном
Магдалена Вентура с мужем и сыном
1631, 212×144 см

Caravaggists did not hesitate to display different qualities of a person, not only noble ones. They basically loved everything strange and wrong. For example, José de Ribera, who lived in Naples, Spain, is known for his petty artistic provocations in line with contemporary art. His Magdalena Ventura with Her Husband and Son depicts two men, one of whom is breastfeeding a baby. The breast is female, but it is surrounded by the layer of male body hair. The artist captured a miracle of nature — a bearded lady.


The difference between the caravaggists and the Renaissance
The Renaissance is the period that began around the 14th century and ended at the late 16th century, traditionally associated primarily with the Italian region. The ideas and images of the Renaissance largely determined the aesthetic ideals of modern man, his sense of harmony, measure and beauty. Read more
artists is easy to understand with specific examples. The classic of the Renaissance
The Renaissance is the period that began around the 14th century and ended at the late 16th century, traditionally associated primarily with the Italian region. The ideas and images of the Renaissance largely determined the aesthetic ideals of modern man, his sense of harmony, measure and beauty. Read more
, the portrait of Ippolito Riminaldi by Titian (Portrait of a Young Englishman), is also made in dark colours. However, the subject stands in an official pose, he is dressed up in ceremonial clothes: the viewer can see the appearance, but not the inner feelings, and even more so the vices of the subject. This is an official portrait — like a passport photo. The Boy with a Basket of Fruit by Caravaggio is clearly flirting, posing, expressing his momentary emotions. His body is in a cutesy pose, which the models of the Renaissance
The Renaissance is the period that began around the 14th century and ended at the late 16th century, traditionally associated primarily with the Italian region. The ideas and images of the Renaissance largely determined the aesthetic ideals of modern man, his sense of harmony, measure and beauty. Read more
were not allowed, they had to stand decorously and correctly.

Caravaggist artists:


Orazio Gentileschi, Georges de La Tour, Mario Nuzzi De Fiori, Dirck van Baburen, José de Ribera. Paul Rubens, Diego Velázquez, and Rembrandt also went through their stage of caravaggism
This truly unique style of the Baroque era was named after Caravaggio, a reformer artist, the founder of realism. Who remembers today that he committed a murder in his youth? Despite his life on the run, the artist managed to gather a circle of students and followers — caravaggists. The trend developed in Italy at the late 16th — early 17th centuries, as well as in Holland, Germany and Spain. Read more
.
Дирк Ван Бабюрен. Положение во гроб
Положение во гроб
1617, 221×143 см

Significant caravaggist paintings


- José de Ribera. Magdalena Ventura with Her Husband and Son, 1631
- Dirck van Baburen. The Entombment, 1617
- Georges de La Tour. The Card Sharp with the Ace of Diamonds. 1620—1640, Louvre.


You are an expert if:


You do not classify Rembrandt’s paintings as caravaggism
This truly unique style of the Baroque era was named after Caravaggio, a reformer artist, the founder of realism. Who remembers today that he committed a murder in his youth? Despite his life on the run, the artist managed to gather a circle of students and followers — caravaggists. The trend developed in Italy at the late 16th — early 17th centuries, as well as in Holland, Germany and Spain. Read more
, and also doubt that the work of Caravaggio himself can be attributed to the art movement. In the early stages of his career, Rembrandt did adopt the techniques of the famous Italian master, but soon developed his signature style.
Caravaggio is usually called the founder of realism
Realism (from late Latin reālis — “real”) is considered to be the beginning in the development of modern art. In a strict sense, “realism” is an art movement that faithfully and objectively reproduces reality in all its details, regardless of how beautiful are the objects in the picture. Read more
, caravaggists are those who adopted his creative methods, but not the general style. This is a small number of artists and a short period in the history of the art development that was much shorter than realism
Realism (from late Latin reālis — “real”) is considered to be the beginning in the development of modern art. In a strict sense, “realism” is an art movement that faithfully and objectively reproduces reality in all its details, regardless of how beautiful are the objects in the picture. Read more
.

What a story!


When José de Ribera was painting his famous Magdalena, his model — a bearded woman — lived in the palace of the canvas purchaser with her husband and child for a month. Today the painting is stored at the Tavera Hospital in Toledo.