Ivanovich Shukhaev

Russia • 1887−1973

Biografie und Informationen

Shukhaiev Vasily Ivanovich was born in the family of a shoemaker, was orphaned early. However, I managed to enter the SHPU in Moscow, where he studied under the guidance of K. Korovin and I. Nivinsky. Then he continued his education at the Higher art school at St. Petersburg Academy of arts (1906-1912gg.), in the Studio of D. N. Kardovsky, where he studied and his age A. E. Yakovlev. While still at the Academy, the two artists began to participate in exhibitions. Diploma work of the artist "bacchanale" (1912) met with incomprehension on the part of the academic authorities. Focused on the works of Rubens, she was embarrassed by his Frank and direct appeal to the art of the past. Not having received recognition from OH, the two artists went to Italy as a pensioner of the "Russian community in Rome."

VI Shukhaiev was born on 12 (24) January 1887 in Moscow in the family of a former peasant Ivan Yakovlevich Shuhaeva, settled in Moscow and worked in a Shoe shop. At the age of ten he was given to study at the Moscow Stroganov Central school of industrial art. He's got good craft and artistic training from some of the brightest artists of his time: painter, K. Korovin, sculptor N..Andreev, architect I. V. zholtovskiy. After successful completion of the class of embossing at the Stroganov school and receiving the title of academic painter, which gave the right to teach drawing and penmanship in the secondary schools, the two artists intended to work, as after the death of his parents funding for further education was not. Suddenly, the artist learns about the will of his grandfather, which he is provided a certain amount of money. This allowed him to continue his studies, and the two artists entered the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. Six years (1906-1912), he understands the complex skill of the painter, of which four years in the Studio of Professor D. N. Kardovsky. Teaching method D. N. Kardovsky was based on the careful attitude to the natural talent of the student. This complete freedom of exploration and experimentation combined with rigorous analysis and rationale set artistic task. Great importance in the Studio Kardovsky was attached to the work in nature and with nature, a high technique of drawing and improve processing methods. These principles, the two artists carried through all his work - art and teaching.

The years of study at the Academy was filled with my own path in art: already knowing the basics of artistic literacy in the Stroganov school, the two artists continued to work hard to achieve the heights of excellence. Masterfully executed later in the artist's drawings, one can hardly believe that in the first years of training, the two artists in the picture suffered setback after setback. With cool paintings only excellent grades, and the composition is good and great, the young artist received for the drawing up to three points. Only in the third year of training, once in the Studio Kardovsky, the two artists possessed in perfection the mastery charts due to the opening up of such equipment as sanguine (pencil intense brown with a slightly reddish tint). Kardovsky, he prefers to work with charcoal and pencil, did not approve of the work of the sanguine. But the persistence of the student commitment to the material and innovative techniques, convinced him. To Shuhaeva artists used the sanguine is mostly in the preparatory drawings as the pencil draws a stroke. In the hands of Shuhaeva this material has become truly all-powerful: one pencil he solved the problems of volume and plane, tonal gradation, rhythmic construction, composition scheme. In the future, the two artists will create wonderful drawings, done in sanguine, included in the Golden Fund of graphics of the early twentieth century.

For graduation picture "Orgy" in 1912, the Academy awarded Shuhaeva the title of the artist, and the Society for the encouragement of young artists in Rome was awarded the prize: a two-year pensionerstvo in Italy.

From the Academy, the two artists released a staunch lover of strict and deep skill, a principled opponent of all other methods, except taken in the Studio Kardovsky. The young artist is equally not attracted as scenic experiments of the Impressionists and abstractionists, and traditional views of the "Wanderers". He was in creative search, the "compelling imagery" in painting and a trip to the Eternal city to the great masters of the Renaissance was handy. Throughout the winter of 1913 and spring of 1914, the two artists with his closest friend, also an artist, A. E. Yakovlev travelled around the ancient cities of Italy, studying such standards of art like the frescoes of Giotto, the sculptures of Michelangelo, paintings by Raphael, Pisanello drawings, the architecture of Brunelleschi. The classic art of the Renaissance was close to young Russian artists, despite the groundbreaking discovery of numerous artistic movements in the early twentieth century.

Sergei Makovsky in the magazine "Apollo", wrote: "Other critics, weary from the dizzying succession of "isms", imagined in the works of Yakovlev and Shukhaev saving twist to the art of balanced and clear (Igor Grabar earlier prophesied an era of neo-classical, the same was said Serov). Art really knows how to go back to touching the past, stock up on new strength for future conquest." The two artists became one of those artists who continued the tradition of classical art only at a new stage. Therefore, in the history of art it is called "neoclassical".

In Rome, he wrote two large paintings are not extant: "Carousel" and "Susanna and the elders". To judge them only according to surviving sanguine drawings of 1913. Collecting material for the painting "adoration of the Magi", the two artists made a lot of sanguine drawings on the theme of flora and fauna. The painting was not finished, but the remaining graphics are fine examples of the animal genre.

In 1914 on the island of Capri, the two artists Yakovlev write painting –double portrait "harlequin and Pierrot" : brown with painted glow in the bright costume of a harlequin – Alexander Yakovlev and pale bright airy attire Piero Basil Shukhaiev. Contrasting images of the characters seemed to personify the unity and contrast of matter and spirit, earthly and heavenly. Despite the theatrical makeup and costumes of the actors in the characters dominate the dignity and nobility - qualities traditionally characteristic of the classical portrait. In the psychological feature of the model, the composition ( the figures are shown in the growth in the foreground, on the background of the old interior). plastic method – all the influence so beloved of the old paintings of Italian, Flemish, Dutch.

In 1914-1915 architect A. V. Shchusev ( at that time still young , but already recognized as a master) has proposed inseparable friends to do the painting of the Orthodox Church of Nicholas of Myra to Bari (Italy). Soon Shchusev drew Yakovlev and Shukhaev to the painting of one of the halls he designed the Kazan station in Moscow. The implementation of both of these works prevented the outbreak of the first world war. The two artists immediately goes to Russia. On the 9-th exhibition "New society of artists" in Petrograd in 1915, he exhibited 67 works, and 47 of them are drawings for the painting "adoration of the Magi", 17 – drawings and watercolors from the series "Italy", 3-portraits (TS Stachewicz, V. N. Meshkov, E. N. Shuhaeva). In 1915, the artist received the invitation to work as an artist in the Russian army. He enthusiastically goes to the life guard lancers and creates more than 30 drawings – portraits of officers and soldiers. All these works were in the regimental Museum in Peterhof, lost in the first world war. Soon, the two artists goes again to the army – in the fourth hussar life guards regiment of Mariupol, where it creates a cycle of 54 drawings and sketches for the painting "the Regiment on positions". The painting itself, which is a big group portrait was not completed. But the preparatory sanguine drawings it is not less expressive and concise. The two artists with scrupulous accuracy, which never turns neither photographic nor naturalism, gives an individual description of each officer. He does not idealize the person, and reveals the essence of his inner state. Portraits of officers, masterfully executed Shukhaev, are "documentary" witnesses of valor, honor and glory of the Russian army.

At the end of 1916, Shukhaev was invited to teach drawing at the Women's courses of higher architectural knowledge. In the atmosphere of this place is reflected all the contradictions of the time, the multiplicity of views and tastes. "On the pedagogical councils was a continuous war between the supporters of the academic tradition and young artists seeking new ways". Soon after the October revolution the course was closed, but teaching activities, the two artists don't quit. He continued to teach drawing students the Central school of technical drawing of Baron Stieglitz, reorganized in 1918 Higher school of decorative arts. But here, he taught a short time: he was elected head of Studio at the Academy of Arts. The artist began to engage with students in Studio room, which was previously headed by I. E. Repin. From military service, the two artists, like many artists of the time, was released by order of the Council of people's deputies. So he could freely engage in teaching and painting.

In 1917 he wrote a number of remarkable portraits: a portrait of his first wife E. N. Shuhaeva, S. N. Andronikou, A. M. Gorky and others. Portrait of Elena Nikolaevna Shuhaeva – an example of remarkable technical skill of the painter and his artistic interests. The viewer is presented a pale lady in a luxurious Golden gown, brittle folds of which issued very carefully, almost illusory. The effect of the depth of Golden brown is achieved by the following technique: the artist uses a wooden Board, which causes the contour of a thin layer of pure gold leaf. The portrait he paints in oils, glazes, and the background reports conditionally three colors - black, blue, pink. This work, written in the genre of a smart portrait in the spirit of the masters of the early Renaissance, was created in 1917 when the country was experiencing dramatic events of the revolutionary action. But Shuhaeva, like many other artists, were interested in the issues not political, but creative. So he, along with his supporters Kardovsky and Yakovlev creates "a Workshop St. Luke". The purpose of this Association was the revival of traditions of old masters and protect the interests of artists. Specific tasks of this Union, of course, was far from the spirit of the revolutionary time and its challenges – the widespread introduction of art to the masses. Soon the "Shop" broke up. The two artists will make a few attempts to "be right" country Advice: take part in festive decoration of Petrograd, will perform sketches of scenery and costumes for theater. But the history of the country continued to develop in a tragic scenario. In 1920 the artist ' leaves Home with the thought that this separation will be short, but it lasted for 15 years.

Shukhaiev c wife went to Finland, but a year later in 1921 with the assistance of Yakovlev moved to Paris. The following year, the artists have a joint exhibition in the gallery, Barbacane, where the two artists introduced the sophisticated Parisian public 21 paintings and 8 drawings. In Paris, the artist continues to paint, but for the first time tries his hand in the book drawing. From 1922 - 1930s he creates for the Paris publishing house "Pleyada" illustrations to the works of Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoevsky, Leskov, Chekhov, Heine, Musset. In Pushkin's Queen of spades stylized vintage prints black and white illustrations alternate with color decorative "panels" of playing cards. Witty satirical images in Gogol's "the Nose" (nose is, the nose is open) are combined with just found a way of Petersburg. The depth of human passions Lermontov's "a hero of our time" the master encrypts it in the emblems and symbols ( dagger and rose, epaulette and playing card). Creative top Shuhaeva in his book graphics 18 are illustrations of the tragedy of Pushkin's "Boris Godunov" (1925). Colorized by the author hands the book was published in French in small editions – 445 copies. Shukhaiev tragedy illustrates in a stylized manner under the icon painting of the 17th century: pure local color, reverse perspective, the arbitrariness in the interpretation of space and volume, the principle of isocephaly. The exact pattern and rich color, the wizard creates soulful images of the king, monks, princes, commoners. The theme of Russian history appears repeatedly in the work Shuhaeva in exile: in addition to the illustrations, it performs a mural on the theme of fairy tales of Pushkin concert hall in Paris, creating sets for theatrical miniature "Stepan Razin".

In 1920-30-ies Shukhaev painting exhibited at many international exhibitions: in new York, Munich, Brussels, Copenhagen. The artist travels mainly through France only in 1930 travels to Morocco, across Spain on a specially bought for this car. Having received two orders for the painting of the hotel in Rabat and the house of Pasha in Casablanca, the two artists passing through the towns of North Africa, with interest watching the unusual lifestyle of the indigenous population. A skilled draftsman makes a lot of sketches from life: genre scenes, with the participation of merchants, children, beggars, soldiers, barbers, fortune-tellers. On the series "Morocco" artist until 1961.

Paris in those years, "...lived full artistic life: Diaghilev put his best ballets, performances of Rachmaninoff, Chaliapin, Koussevitzky and his orchestra,...Anna Pavlova with her troupe, IDA Rubinsteina". Communication with such outstanding personalities in the history of world culture couldn't leave the artist indifferent. In the early 1930-ies, the two artists he writes expressive portraits of the Russian intelligentsia in exile: Prokofiev, Stravinsky, Chaliapin.. Discarding unnecessary details, the artist puts at the centre of the composition a large image of a head model with the aim to convey to the viewer the most important is the mental state of the model. The success of these easel paintings were great, they wanted to acquire many collectors, but the two artists takes an unexpected decision to return home, along with most of his works. In February 1935 he moved to Leningrad.

The artist gets a personal workshop at the Institute of painting, sculpture and architecture the Russian Academy of Arts. In those years in the Institute taught artists of the most different principles of teaching - from Brodsky to A. A. Osmerkin and students could choose their teachers. In the workshop of Shuhaeva "all the work of painting and drawing took place under the sign of the sculptural form and understanding of the laws of its construction. Required knowledge ...anatomical. Great attention was paid to the transmission of character, movement and proportions of nature....details had to obey a whole". Principled and unyielding as a teacher, the two artists sought to convey to the students "all the knowledge, ability and skill which he possessed in perfection." In 1937, Shukhaev was arrested in the courtyard of the Academy on false reports of espionage. Ten years from 1937 to 1947, the two artists and his second wife Vera Fedorovna Shuhaeva he served his sentence in Magadan. There, the two artists worked on sketches of scenery and costumes for performances of Musical and dramatic theatre. Gorky. The master had to generate thumbnails for a variety of genres – operas, operettas, tragedies, comedies, and also to decorate the stage for concerts. However, the inmate was not possible to do easel painting. After the liberation in 1947 Shuhaeva leave in Tbilisi. In Georgia, after years of neglect, the artist proposed to create sketches of scenery for the Opera by P. Tchaikovsky "Eugene Onegin" at the Tbilisi State theatre of Opera and ballet.Z.Paliashvili. Soon, thanks to the patronage of the famous artist and educator E. E. Lansere, Shukhaev was invited to take the post of Professor of drawing at the Academy of arts of the Georgian SSR. Teaching will be an important part of his life in the last 25 years.

Has entered a new phase in the artist's work. In Tbilisi in parallel with the work in the theatre, he again starts to be engaged in easel painting and graphics. With the years 1949-1951, the two artists creates a series of graphic portraits of Georgian culture, Reaffirming your skills as a brilliant draughtsman. In the viewer look smart, serious and faces – the best representatives of the creative intelligentsia. Recognizable brushwork of the artist: pencil shading is formed three-dimensional plastic modeling, the expressive line drawing adds to the completeness of the chiaroscuro and highlights fall strictly in the classical Canon. "Neoclassical", the two artists remains true to itself even in the atmosphere the propagation of the art of socialist realism.

In 1950 - 1960-e years the artist painted genre paintings on the life of the Georgian people. In 1962 he was awarded the title of honored scientist of the Georgian SSR. Incredible performance and love for his craft allowed Shuhaeva to maintain their skills. From 1958-1968 years has held 4 solo exhibitions of the master. In 1968, in the halls of the USSR Academy of arts in Leningrad opened last lifetime personal exhibition, dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the artist. And although it was the work Shuhaeva is not complete, the exhibition showed that in the history of Russian and Soviet art, this artist occupies a special place.

14 APR 1973года VI Shukhaiev died and was buried in Tbilisi.