Holbein the Younger

Germany • 1497−1543

Hans Holbein the Younger. Hans Holbein der Jüngere, 1497, Augsburg - 1543, London) - painter and graphic artist, one of the greatest German artists. The most famous member of this family.

Was born in Augsburg, Germany, studied painting from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder. Were influenced by Hans Burgkmair.

1 the Basel period (1515-1525)

Later with his brother Ambrosius Holbein moved in Basel (Switzerland), where the brothers worked for two years in the Studio of H. of Herbster. In the city Holbein met many humanists and scientists of this period, including Erasmus. At the request of the latter illustrated his work - "the Praise of folly" publications 1514 82 drawings. Holbein illustrated and other books, participated in the creation of the German translation of the Bible Martin Luther. Like his father, he designed stained glass Windows and painted portraits.

At this time the financial position of Holbein was apparently bad: they have written a sign of a school teacher in Basel proves that he did not refuse and craft works. In the same 1516 he wrote a portrait of the mayor of Meyer and his wife, and painter Hans Herbster, next year - the frescoes inside and on the outside walls of the house of Hertenstein in Lucerne. Upon his return in the autumn 1519 in Basel, worked on the decoration of facades, thereby making the modest private houses in the magnificent palaces, decorated with columns and figures.

The most important works of the Basel period Holbein: portrait of a lawyer Boniface of Amerbach; 10 paintings of the passion of Christ; the frescoes in the new town hall, the organ of the door in the local Cathedral, the leaves of the altar triptych for freibergsee Cathedral, images of the Nativity and Adoration of the Magi; Madonna with saints, for the Solothurn; and finally, the famous Madonna family Meyer.

By this time, there are portraits of Erasmus, Dorothy Offenburg in the form of laisy Corinthian and Venus (1526), and drawings to the old Testament (91 HP) and "Dance of Death" (58 HP), engraved in wood by Lutzenberger.

1st English period (1526-28)

In 1526, Holbein left Basel, because the reformation it was difficult to find money. In England he found a warm welcome from Thomas more, who Erasmus wrote a letter of recommendation. Subject prevailed in England taste, it is for all time of his stay there he wrote exclusively portraits; these are portraits Mora and his family, Archbishop. Canterbury[1], the astronomer of Kratzer, and other Godzilla

The 2nd Basel period (1529-31)

After returning to Basel in 1528 Holbein graduated from the frescoes in the hall of the town hall (1530, scenes from the old Testament) and wrote several portraits.

2nd English period (1532-1543)

In 1532 religious discord and the victory in Switzerland iconoclastic party made Holbein again to leave the Basel and HHS in England, where were executed them in this time of many portraits, including those now in Berlin, Windsor, Gaga, Braunschweig and Vienna. On the occasion of the solemn entry of Anne Boleyn in 1533 in London he made on behalf of Hanseatic merchants street decorations depicting Parnassus, and in their Guild hall wrote apofeoz of wealth and poverty. Date from this time his portraits goldsmith. The element plans (Dresden), sir Richard Sotela (Gal. The Uffizi in Florence), Vol. Viet and his friend (Lansfordite) and others, and "Wheel of Fortune". He managed to become court painter of king Henry VIII.

Work for the Tudor court

Besides working portraitist, Holbein made sketches of the court vestments of the monarch.

We have several Gribanovsky portraits of Henry VIII, Queen Jane Seymour, Edward VI, Duke of Norfolk, etc. On behalf of the king Holbein twice went to the continent, in order to paint portraits of princes, whom Henry VIII was interested with matrimonial purposes. The famous story happened with the portrait of Anna Kievskoy, written by the artist not from nature, but from other, weaker master: king of the image of the girl liked, and the marriage contract was concluded. When the bride caught plump German, disembarked, the king was horrified and not touching wife never, filed for divorce. The second Princess Christina of Denmark, from the marriage with the English king politely refused itself.

The last period of his life the artist spent between Basel and London. In 1543, between October 7 and November 29, he died from the plague, raging in London.

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