Ivan Constantinovich Aivazovsky (Armenian Hovhannes Ayvazian; July 17 (29), 1817, Theodosia - April 19 (May 2), 1900, Theodosia) - the most famous Russian marine painter. The main characters of his paintings are seascapes. Aivazovsky went from being a Feodosia boy who painted on the walls of houses, because there were no pencils or albums in the house, to one of the most famous and successful masters of his time. He was recognized both on the territory of the Russian Empire and abroad. In the heyday of fame, the artist returned to Feodosia and made tremendous efforts to change the beloved city for the better.
Features of the artist Ivan Aivazovsky: the main theme and hero of Aivazovsky’s paintings is the sea, the main genre is the marina. Aivazovsky actively used the technique of glaze, so that the "wave of Aivazovsky" entered the history of art (this is a translucent foaming wave, often found in his paintings). Almost never fundamentally wrote from life, believing that the element can not be depicted, because it is the next moment is different. Aivazovsky wrote easily, quickly and was very fruitful, his legacy - about six thousand paintings.
Artist Ivan Aivazovsky, the first in Russia, began to organize his own solo exhibitions. In his lifetime, 120 of them passed - few people today can boast of such. He loved society and women, but most of all he loved the sea. His life is an example of a successful hit in his destiny. It seems that at every crossroad of life he made the right choice. And could another ...
On the origin of the artist Aivazovsky and his first paintings
The ancestors of Aivazovsky fled during the Turkish Armenian Genocide to Poland, and then moved to the Crimea. Artist's fatherin Feodosia was already signed by the name Gayvazovsky. Hovhannes was born there. The family had three daughters and two sons. Parents could barely make ends meet, so Hovhannes joined the labor early. The boy was very good at drawing and playing the violin. Paints and paper fell into the hands of him infrequently, so basically he had to use improvised means - coal and walls of houses. The mayor Alexander Kaznacheyev once became interested in the “wall painting” depicting a soldier in full ammunition, and wished to get acquainted with the author. All his life, Ivan Aivazovsky remembered with gratitude his benefactor and said that he received from him "The best and most memorable gift is a box of water-based paints and a whole foot of drawing paper.". The treasurers assigned him to the Simferopol gymnasium, and at the time of his studies he settled at home. Then he contributed to the enrollment of the boy at public expense in the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg. Young student recorded Ivan Gayvazovsky. Only in 1840, the letter G will disappear from his last name - so he wants to pay tribute to his Armenian roots.
At the Academy of Arts
Aivazovsky fell into the classroom of a landscape painter known at that time, a wonderful teacher Maxim Vorobiev. With him, Ivan studied academic wisdom, and from him he took over the love of the romantic direction, then still innovative. Aivazovsky was a frequent guest in the teacher's house, and he himself was making progress, his paintings were noticed and praised, and amazing prospects opened up before him. Moreover, at age 18, Ivan Konstantinovich received a silver medal from the Academy. This medal almost put an end to his future.
In Russia at that time it was adopted at court and the French painter marine painter was extremely loved. Philip Tanner. He was invited to write the most important Russian ports. Aivazovsky sent the French to assistants. He quickly appreciated the talent of the student and instructed him not only to stretch canvases, to rub paints, to wash brushes, but also to sketch views. There was a lot of work, and Aivazovsky was completely exhausted in the process of preparing Tanner for the exhibition. Once he was met by the president of the Academy Olenin. Alarmed by the emaciated appearance of the young man, Olenin invited him to his estate. There Aivazovsky regained his strength and ... wrote a couple of marines. The president, on his own initiative, presented them at the 1836 academic exhibition.
For the artist Aivazovsky, this exhibition is memorable by the fact that he was immediately praised Karl Brullov: “I saw your pictures at the exhibition and suddenly I felt the salty taste of the sea on my lips ... It can be seen that you are endowed with an exceptional memory that keeps the impressions of nature itself. This is important for a true artist. ”. At the same exhibition, Aivazovsky met Pushkin. The following year, the poet was killed, but this meeting deeply sunk into the soul of the artist, and then he wrote many pictures dedicated to Pushkin.
Positive reviews! Moreover, there was a review in which the picture of Aivazovsky was contrasted to Tanner's mannered canvases. Such a comparison was extremely offended by Tanner, and he, using the position of a master of painting close to the emperor, complained that Aivazovsky "Stole his secrets" and through his head exhibited his paintings at the exhibition. Nicholas I disliked violations of the chain of command, therefore he ordered the work of the obstinate student to be removed. But there was confusion, the paintings by Aivazovsky hung up to the end of the exhibition and were marked with a silver medal. When it turned out that these were the very works, the emperor did not want to hear more about the insolent.
And here the amazing luck of Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky on people taking part in his fate was manifested. Zhukovsky, Glinka, Olenin, Puppeteer - who just did not petition for him. All in vain! As a "heavy artillery" to protect the young talent rose teacher of royal daughters, professor of the Academy Alexander Sauerweid. He managed to soften the anger of Nicholas I. Aivazovsky was transferred to the class of battle-painting, in which Sauerweid taught. Soon the young man, receiving a gold medal of the Academy, was sent for training to the Crimea, and then to Europe.
Aivazovsky's paintings conquer Europe
In Europe, the artist Aivazovsky first appeared at the age of 23 years. "I, like a bee, collect honey from a flower garden"- he reported on his journey through Italy, in which he eagerly absorbed new species and wrote. At that time, work from life was considered urgent. Ivan Konstantinovich tried to follow these calls. For three weeks in Sorrento, he wrote views from nature, exploring all the surrounding beaches. And after Aivazovsky depicted in the studio from memory two paintings. What was the artist's amazement when at the exhibition the spectators indifferently walked past his “nature” and stopped for a long time with the “invented” dawn and sunset. From that moment on, he stopped trying to squeeze himself into a frame that was obviously cramped for him. The artist always carried a notebook with a pencil to make sketches, sketches, but he wrote from now on only in the workshop.
And once again getting into his rut - Aivazovsky found his own way, his own way of painting, even though he went against what was then taught to painters. And fame found him. The years spent abroad seem to be an endless succession of successes. Great Turnerwho created an incomparable song of the sea, sun and air, was delighted with the works of the Russian artist. A poem dedicated to the British master of the then young Aivazovsky is widely known: “Forgive me, great artist, if I made a mistake in taking the picture as reality, but your work fascinated me, and the enthusiasm seized me. Your art is high and powerful because your genius inspires you. ”.
The formation of the brush Aivazovsky influenced, first of all, Claude Lorrain(Turner also considered him his teacher) Sylvester Shchedrin(Ivan Konstantinovich’s talent grew, perhaps, in opposition to the principles of Shchedrin, a big fan of open-air painting) and Karl Bryullov - the ability to combine academic rigor with romantic emotion.
Everywhere he went, hundreds of paintings “under Aivazovsky” soon appeared in all the art shops, and a line of people willing to buy originals lined up for him. He no longer needed to compare his travels with the modest guesthouse provided by the Academy. Switzerland, Holland, England, France, Portugal and Spain - success everywhere.
A series of correct choices
In 1844, Ivan Aivazovsky turned 27 years old. Some at this age only find their way, and some - have not yet found. He managed to conquer Europe, and on his return he became an academician and official artist of the navy. He was instructed to write the kinds of Russian ports and coastal cities on the Baltic Sea, which Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky would do with great pleasure. He carried his love for the fleet and ships through his life, and enjoyed a well-deserved response love.
Aivazovsky was repeatedly blamed for the ease with which sea waves emerged from under his hand. And, perhaps, the ease with which he was given success. He is treated kindly by the emperor, he is loved by the light, he is friendly with famous writers, composers, artists. He spelled joyfully and fluently. Acquaintance with Vissarion Belinsky brought discord into this harmony. Severe morals critic was not a fan of sentiment. He recognized the great talent of Aivazovsky as a painter and worldly painter and pointed out the impending danger. “Leave from here, Ivan Konstantinovich. Ruin you St. Petersburg. Not for people like you, this city ... You ruin your lucky gift on the royal orders and orders of his nobles. He remembered how his career nearly collapsed in his youth. In addition, it is really unbearably drawn to the sea. He could spend the winter in Petersburg, but it was getting warmer a little - he wanted to go to the waves.
In the most fashionable living rooms of St. Petersburg, the news about the strange artist Aivazovsky, the lucky darling and the favorite of the emperor, who in the heyday of fame and went to provincial Feodosia, was discussed for a long time. And I never regretted about it: finding your place is no less important than finding your own business. Ivan Konstantinovich loved his city very much. It seems that he set the goal to thank him for the start in life, which was given to him. Without occupying any rank, he became the real father of the city. His courtyard was always open to the citizens, he organized a theater, an art school, a gallery in Feodosia. It seems that half of the Theodosian children were personally baptized by them. He put a lot of effort to build a port in Feodosia and build a railway, gave the city water supply.
Artist Aivazovsky and his women
The first love of Aivazovsky, about which information or legends reached us, is the leading soloist of the Paris Opera, a ballerina Maria Taloni. She was older than the artist by 13 years. He dreamed of always being near, but Maria decided that in her life the main role was assigned to ballet and refused to become his wife.
Already having built a house in Feodosia, Aivazovsky often spent the winter in St. Petersburg, where he was considered a very enviable bridegroom. And it's not just about fame and wealth - he was very beautiful, courteous, charming and cheerful. How many beauties dreamed to turn his head! In one of the wealthy St. Petersburg families, the older girls quarreled, trying to determine who Aivazovsky was infrequently in love with. And he himself offered to give drawing lessons to both the elders and the youngest, whom the governess brought to classes. The mother of the family thought a sinful affair, and what if it was she who sunk into the soul of the young man? Two weeks later, St. Petersburg received a new reason for gossip. Well-known artist, a young handsome, charming rich man marries a ... governess! That's what he came for!
In marriage with Julia Grevs were born four girls. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky was unspeakably happy and said that his best paintings were painted according to the inspiration associated with his marriage. Alas, such happiness was not infinite. Julia dreamed to shine in Petersburg, and life in Feodosia did not suit her at all. Family paradise was replaced by scandals, and after 11 years she went to Odessa, from where she sent the king complaints about her husband and prevented his communication with children. In 1877, their marriage was officially terminated.
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky in Feodosia was well known and loved. When the matchmaker handed over the offer of a 65-year-old master to a 26-year-old widow Anna Sarkizovashe didn’t doubt long. The wedding was celebrated all Theodosius. In this marriage, the artist gained support and understanding.
"Happiness smiled on me"- he said somehow. When a person gets into his destiny and lives his life, then happiness really smiles at him.
Today, Aivazovsky's paintings are exhibited around the world, they are also present in catalogs of various reputable auctions, such as Sotheby's, for example, and have incredible success. The richest collectors of painting want to buy works of Ivan Konstantinovich for huge money. But the greatest paintings of the artist remain in museums and are available to the public: the canvas "Among the waves"(282 x 425 cm) is exhibited at the Gallery of Aivazovsky in Feodosia,"Ninth shaft"(221 x 332 cm) in the Russian Museum,"Black Sea"(149 x 208 cm) in the Tretyakov Gallery.