Founded in 1754, the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum is one of the oldest museums in Europe. The current museum building was opened in 1887. The historical building was closed for renovation for seven years. The museum reopened on 23 October 2016.
The museum houses an important collection of Western old master paintings, and is especially strong in Northern European art since the Renaissance, including works by Cranach, Holbein, Dürer, Van Dyck, Rubens, and Rembrandt. Rarities include a single work each by Vermeer, Giorgione and Rosso Fiorentino. The museum is based on the art collection of Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1633–1714), after whom it is named.