Yuri Ivanovich Pimenov (26 November 1903, Moscow — September 6, 1977, Moscow) — Russian and Soviet painter and stage designer, master of advertising Soviet poster, writer-essayist.
Features of the artist Yuri Pimenov: He was called the master of the Soviet impressionism; Pimenov considered herself a "realistic impressionist" and did not intend to abandon his artistic credo and art solutions even in times, when exposed to censure and persecution from the authorities. Being a deep Soviet artist Yuri Pimenov "took" party ideologists "from the art" themes of his paintings devoted to the life of his contemporaries, reserving the right to execute the technique, which was inherent in it: light, airy brushstrokes, bright, translucent paint, the lyrical flow of topics. To impressionism he come not at once: in the early period of creativity can be traced to his commitment to German expressionism, to which he will return to the years of the Second world war. Early thirties with sharp outlines and dark colors almost disappear from the works of Pimenov, the artist focuses on "lyrical and elegant arts", making ordinary subjects extraordinary technical execution and composition. Favorite themes of the artist — Moscow and Muscovites, the creative life of the Soviet people, urban landscape.
The most famous picture of Yuri Pimenov: "Disabled war veterans", "New Moscow", "Front road", "Wedding on tomorrow street".
Yuri Pimenov was born in 1903 in Moscow. The son of the assistant attorney Ivan Pimenov and merchant’s daughter Claudia Mikhailovna (nee Babanine), Yura graduated from the 10-th Moscow gymnasium. Love drawing the boy got from his father, who was an Amateur artist. High-school art teacher said gifted disciple and gave him protection when entering the Zamoskvoretsky school of drawing. Coming to the Tretyakov gallery, Pimenov definitely going to watch the painting Savrasov"Rooks have arrived" — this painting was his favorite, always the admiration of the future artist. Then he rushed to the landscapes Benoit, Somov, Levitan.
Study in VKHUTEMAS
The works of the Impressionists Pimenov, like many young artists of that time were acquainted, coming in Big Znamensky a lane, to the estate of the Trubetskoy belonged to the famous collector Sergei Shchukin. Here in the Shchukin gallery was he gone all day, admiring the paintingsMonet and Degas,Renoir and Matisse… When Pimenova was 17 years old, he showed his drawings to the artist Sergey Malyutin. To assess the potential of the youth, the master took him to his Studio. Yuri Pimenov entered the Higher art and technical studios (VKHUTEMAS) in the year of their formation — 1920. About his years of study in VKhUTEMAS Pimenov later wrote: "We… it was noisy in the auditorium of the Polytechnic Museum at the poetry reading, supporting Mayakovsky and Aseev, noise on the performances of Meyerhold. But not only noise. We learned the skill. I learned from Malyutin, Falileeva and am very grateful to them. But most of all I learned from Tabor and maybe without the right, you want to consider yourself his disciple". Fellow students Pimenova was Alexander Deineka Andrey Goncharov, Peter Williams.
The society of easel painters. Marriage
The first discussion exhibition associations active revolutionary art was held in Moscow in 1924. The session was attended by students from VKhUTEMAS, United by the time the group "projectionists and concreteview" and "group of three" - it was made by Yuri Pimenov, Alexander Deineka and Andrei Goncharov. After a year together, all three groups founded the OST — the Society of easel painters, the followers of European expressionism. Dynamic composition, strict colors, monumentality and the graphic characteristic of the works created by Pimenov, 20 years. Famous painting "Invalids of war" (1926) fully reflects the tragedy of the post-revolutionary era, and the emotional message complements the predominance of cool green tones and graphic image clarity. A year later, for the picture "Give heavy industry!" Pimenov received the award of the jury of the Exhibition of works of art to the tenth anniversary of the October revolution.
Contemporary Pimenova, the artist Alexander Labas described his colleague: "Pimenov was very active, quick, lively, cheerful, laughed a lot, loved small talk, loved to dress up, povratiti. I had the impression that he does not hesitate on the go, with a smile, sometimes with a smile, loved to laugh at someone, to joke, and then it all instantly forgotten, and he was talking and laughing about something else. But among the empty childish conversations have Pimenova appeared serious notes of thinking and analyzing person… And the more I learned, the more he saw this side, his ability to synthesize and weigh all on the basis of a great imagination".
In 1931 Pimenov married Natalia Konstantinovna Bernadskiy (1908−1978), a typist-stenographer by profession. The couple loved each other; Pimenov called Natalia his best model and was frequently depicted in the paintings. The artist wrote: "…remembering your work done in many years, I see that her figure, her hair or hands, they are not the same, but something always reminds the female that was closer".
"Izobrigada", illness and change of creative orientation
OST ceased operations in early 1931, and part of artists United in the group "Izobrigada", which joined and Pimenov. Distancing himself from the "petty-bourgeois and bourgeois influence," the new Association declared "strengthening the proletarian sector in the arts." The existence of "Izobrigady" did not last long: approaching 1932-th year, when the legislation banned all art Association. To address Pimenova louder were accused of formalism and lack of new creative techniques. "…We exist on the money that one has earned my wife" - recalled Pimenov. At the same time, the artist got sick of the troubles with health began at the Pimenova from the bite of a mad dog. Despite vaccination, the artist was scared by what happened and was expecting the worst, he "has spread to the nerves" and it could not work, broken physically and mentally. However, youth, a healthy body and support of his beloved wife helped Pimenova to cope with the disease, but later and with depression.
Pimenov struggled with the spiritual and creative emptiness, leaving the city on commuter trains. There he wandered outdoors, in the woods and in the field, rediscovered the joys of the simple life, watching the villagers. "…I have raised the desire to work, desire to write and to paint from nature, and live nature, which is so rich, subtle and well there around."
The return to work. "Software" paintings
Early thirties with sharp outlines and dark colors almost disappear from Pimenov paintings, the artist focuses on "lyrical and elegant art." Going back to work, he works a lot in the field of design of theatrical productions and illustrating books. Pimenov writes triptych "Workers Of The Uralmash"and in 1937 creates his famous painting "New Moscow". In this painting, everything unusual, everything breathes Nov: rebuilt Ryad, new open car, the woman behind the wheel. And brand-new impressionistic technique work with a light fractional stroke, which is — with rare exceptions — the hallmark of the new creative vision of a master. In 1939 Pimenov with a team of artists created a panel of "Sports parade in Moscow", which was exhibited at the stand of the USSR at the world exhibition in new York devoted to architecture and urban planning.
The second world war
During the Second world war, Pimenov returns to the expressionism — this technique is most appropriate for the terrible tragedy that was experienced by the whole country. Together with the artist Vladimir Vasiliev he is working on the Windows of TASS. In 1943 Pimenova commander in the North-Western front, and then Leningrad. The artist paints the canvas "Night street" (1942), "Tire tracks" (1944), "Front road" (1944) and others.
Post-war creativity and teaching
Immediately after the war Pimenova was invited to a teaching job in the University’s art school. He became even closer to the movie, which was loved very much, and in 1950 took part in the work on one of the most famous postwar films "Kuban Cossacks". Pimenov enthusiastically draws new Moscow and Muscovites, joyfully and persistently rebuilding his hometown after the devastation. His favourite genre is an urban landscape. The artist creates a pictorial cycle of the "Things of every day" (1959) and "New quarters" (1963−1967); in the last he is awarded the Lenin prize.
Colourful and bright motifs Pimenov was able to bring in the Soviet theatrical life in the mid-twentieth century living, magical stage decisions. Interesting was the statement made by the artist for Small theatre "Wolves and sheep" by A. N. Ostrovsky (1941), "For those who in the sea!" B. A. Lavrenev (1946), the design of the play "Cyrano de Bergerac" by E. Rostand in the production of the manuscript (1943). Pimenov sought to cover all aspects of the artistic solution of the production — from sets and costumes to the design of posters and programmes. As recalled Director Maria Knebel, "…he worked in the theater somehow joking. He was accustomed to the painstaking work of Illustrator, it was fun to invent a decorative image of the play… Artistic image pimenovsky scenery was a synthesis of our joint quest and always enriched the Director’s design.". The theatre has penetrated into the artist’s paintings: he painted portraits of Actresses, the life behind the scenes. For theatrical work of Yuri Pimenov was twice awarded the Stalin prize in 1947 and 1950.
Writing and recognition
After surviving the terrible years of repression, accusations of formalism and criticism, Pimenov did become quite "Soviet" and were favored by the government. In addition to state awards, from the mid-50s he regularly traveled abroad and wrote a number of essays on his travels to Italy, France, England, and India. The mood of the political "thaw" was reflected not only in the artwork of Pimenov: in the 60s, he wrote and published a number of books, which is solved in the genre of the essay: "Year of travel" (1960), "the Art of living or "Art about nothing" (1960), "the Extraordinary ordinary" (1964), "New quarters" (1968), etc. His paintings are like Soviet pop song — they are easy and life, they are remembered, they like and understandable to all without exception. Pimenova comes to state recognition: he became a national artist of the USSR (1970), knight of the order of Lenin (1973).
Yuri Pimenov died 6 Sep 1977 in Moscow.