(Ukr.Taras Grigorovich Shevchenko, February 25th (March 9th) 1814, village morintsy, Zvenigorod district, Kiev province (this hour Cherkasy region of Ukraine) – February 26 (March 10), 1861, St. Petersburg)
– the great Ukrainian poet, an outstanding artist.Features of the artist Taras Shevchenko.
Coming from a family of serf, Shevchenko became not just an academician of the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy of arts, but also personality-the universal of the nineteenth century. As Briullov's student, began to work at the interface of academic and romantic, but quickly enough, Shevchenko managed to develop a distinctive style and become from the origins of realist painting. Having mastered to perfection the technique of drawing, he is looking for their own natural harmony color, trying to grasp and capture live light. More than just Shevchenko fascinate modeling the power of light and the expressive possibilities of light and shadow Rembrandt van Rijn, very soon and the Shevchenko starting to call the "Russian Rembrandt". In 1840-ies, traveling to Ukraine, Shevchenko makes countless sketches and drawings, trying to tell the world about the wealth of the native nature and the beauty of its ancient monuments. A sketch from the artist reproduces in a very rare for its time, the technique of etching (in Russia at that time preferred etching tool engraving), some experts believe Shevchenko "the first Russian Forticom"; he also works in oils, watercolor, pencil, Sepia. Significant work of Shevchenko as an artist-ethnographer, during his exile on the Aral sea. A special place in the works of Taras Shevchenko is a self-portraits: they not only give an idea how evolved the technique of Shevchenko-the artist and reflect a psychological metamorphosis that happened to him under the influence of tragic life circumstances, but are, like Rembrandt's self-portrait, a powerful tool of self-discovery.Famous paintings and drawings of Taras Shevchenko: "The peasant family"
, "Exaltation monastery in Poltava"
, "Remembrance of the dead" ("Kazakh Katia")
In the Soviet film of 1951 "Taras Shevchenko" of the great Ukrainian poet plays Sergei Bondarchuk. One of the first scenes: Shevchenko working at his easel. Writes from life donnarose, harno, but slightly osolovevshy from long posing Galya or Marichka in plahte, an embroidered shirt and wreath with ribbons. And suddenly waves his hand at her retreat: "go to sleep, serdenko!" ("Get some sleep, sweetheart!") And he hastily rushes to record the surging line. "That's always! – compels him or her boring friend, the artist Soshenko
. – The paint on the palette to dry, and Russian Rembrandt scratches on the wall poetry!.." "Well, if Rembrandt
- with a laugh answers him handsome Shevchenko-Bondarchuk - I Rembrandt a peasant!.."
Shevchenko really was born a "man": in a large family of serfs – Gregory Shevchenko (Grushevskogo) and Catherine Boyko. The mother died before the age of 38 years: her elder son Nikita 12, Junior Joseph – 2, and disobedient, willfully and not like anyone of his brothers and sisters Taras – 9.
Two years later, returning their milky hike and a severe cold, fell ill and father. Tormented for the winter and realizing that came his hour of death, Gregory declares in the words of the will. Mentioned it all: his second wife, the evil stepmother Tarasova Oksana and her children, daughters and sons from the late Catherine and only one of the children the father says: "And him any of my property ought not! He will make either a great man or a great bum!"
Needless to say that this prophecy applies to Taras.
Subsequently, the attitude of the father, and also confusion with the name of the mother found in local parish registers (perhaps Taras has produced not Katherine, and her unmarried sister Agatha), has generated many versions of the special, challenging the origin of Taras. If he were not in some relationship, for example, your landlord, Paul V. Engelhardt? There is no evidence, but assumptions are multiplying. There are more ambitious version in which, it seems, was sure Russian writer Nestor Puppeteer: Engelgardts is sometimes called the heir to the Russian throne, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich (scattered around the world a considerable number of illegitimate children) and some physiognomists even trying to establish a family resemblance between him and Shevchenko.
Version look one more fantastic than the other, but extraordinary and the path of destiny Shevchenko: from the derelict Central Ukrainian village of Moryntsi – the high life of the Russian capital.
In the meantime, Shevchenko 13. He is keeping lambs in the picturesque Ukrainian meadows, privacy and constantly malyuet. Pan Engelhardt shows special favor to him: takes in a manor house. The groom. The post "bring-bring". But in vain the Soviet art tried to imagine Engelhardt cruel serfdom – it was he who first saw in Taras artistic gift.
In 15 years, Shevchenko left Ukraine for the first time and with Paul and Sofia Engelhardt goes to Vilnius and then to Warsaw. Of all the poet's biography, this period is illuminated the least. It is known that in Vilnius Engelhardt gave Shevchenko to learn to Jan Rustem
, the most famous artist of Lithuania the beginning of the XIX century.
In February 1831, Engelgardt arrives in St. Petersburg. Apparently, he really believes in the talent of his fortress, once he decides to continue his art education in the capital. How? At first Shevchenko is determined at the artel artist Shiryaeva: his disciples just doing the finishing and restoration work in the centre of St. Petersburg. Shevchenko gets the opportunity to visit the Hermitage Museum and sketch statues of the Summer Garden. At the same time Taras suddenly, and Engelhardt and, most importantly, himself began to write poetry. But to assess their quality, there is nobody. Prospects Shevchenko-poet of the ephemeral, but artistic talent is evident. And Shevchenko is beginning to dream of the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of arts, in the community of teachers which is next to the star Karl Briullov
Bryullov at this time in the Zenith of fame. He is the first Russian artist, has obtained a European fame. Monumental "Last days of Pompeii"
Briullov is a huge success. And – here's the real miracle: Shevchenko, a young, unknown Ruthenian, besides land, suddenly gets the opportunity to meet by Briullov! How is that possible? Made a mediator fellow countryman Shevchenko, the artist Ivan Soshenko, who was once himself a street demonstration. Soshenko later described the meeting: "When Taras Bryullov drew attention to the fact that the name of Shevchenko is not the face of a serf"
. The story of Shevchenko and his drawings definitely impressed Bryullov. The redemption of Shevchenko from serfdom becomes a matter of honor.
Engelhardt asked for Shevchenko unexpectedly large sum of two and a half thousand rubles banknotes (annual income of the estate in 30 serfs). The issue Bryullov connects celebrities: the poet and the tutor of the heir to the throne of Vasily Zhukovsky, artist Alexey Venetsianov
the graph Belogorskogo. Portrait Of Zhukovsky
written by Briullov, was drawn in the lottery. Such auctions at the court were not uncommon. The proceeds of the money is still not enough, and the participants of the adventure had to add from personal funds. But what is more interesting is the part of the amount for the purchase of Shevchenko paid the Imperial person: the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna, for example, personally made 400 rubles.
Before yesterday's serfs will soon open the doors of the higher light of St. Petersburg. Now hard to find this buck serf. It entails all the temptations of the capital's existence. Modest Soshenko can barely conceal his disappointment: "In Taras as if possessed by the secular devil. It's a shame and it hurt me to look at his luxurious life. Whether stuck to our brother artist to live? So that's why he needed the freedom that cost him so much effort?"
Their relationship is forever discord because of the beautiful German woman, Maria. It was in love Soshenko, and she could not resist the charismatic Shevchenko.
Shevchenko settles on Vasilievsky island, here to his coming sessions, portraying influential person. For the first time in his life he is not experiencing a cash needs. He continues to attend classes Briullov at the Academy, improving in drawing and composition, writes a watercolour of a female Nude by nature ("Maria"
) and finally begins to master the technique of oil painting. It was at this time written the famous became the canonical self-portrait of a young Shevchenko
about: high forehead, large brown eyes attentive...
In the summer of 1843 free and already well-known for his poetry Shevchenko is traveling to Ukraine, she met many famous people. Kiev, Chernigov, Saturday, Khortytsya...Progressive Ukrainian students ready to wear first national poet on hand. Educated ladies avidly read his poems by heart. In Yahotyn, Shevchenko is staying with former General gubernatora little Repnin. His daughter, an unmarried 33-year-old Princess Varvara madly in love with Shevchenko. He calls her "his good angel", but sympathy and kinship can not awaken in him passion.
One of the balls in the neighboring estate Shevchenko meets with the couple Zakrevsky – Hanna
. Soon he will write portraits of both spouses and admits to himself that without memory in love with Hanna. The desire to have a family, wife, your house becomes Shevchenko Intrusive and painful idea – that is what he will never have. Although somewhat later, in St. Petersburg, Ganna Zakrevsky will give him your love.
In the spring of 1845 Shevchenko finishes the Academy, received the title of extra-curricular artist and returns to Ukraine. A part of the Kyiv archaeographic Commission travels to Chernihiv, Cherkasy, Poltava (watercolor "Exaltation monastery in Poltava"
). In the early 1840s, written by his chief paintings on the theme of Ukrainian life: "Gypsy-vorozhka"
, "The peasant family"
Returning to his native Kyrylivka, Shevchenko decides to Woo the daughter of the local priest Gregory Kosice the Theodosia, but she refuses. This event along with the news that Hanna Zakrevsky somewhere far away born may, his daughter, makes Shevchenko a deep depression. In December 1845 on, he falls ill with fever, tossed in Horace, raves, friends doubt he'll survive until morning. In the night from 24 to 25 December, Shevchenko a weak hand lit a candle and groped for his pen: "the Yak dies, bury... Wkrn Mily... ", the famous "Zapovit." In Russian- Will.
He does not know that the major test is ahead of him.
In one fine spring day in 1847, the year Shevchenko was rushing to the wedding Kostomarov, had to be at his friend's best man. Before reaching the destination, he was captured by the gendarmes. In his suitcase among the several albums with pictures (by the way – including the erotic, after all, Shevchenko was a disciple of Briullov!) found anti-serfdom poems. The curse of the monarchy are treated as ingratitude: is not Imperial person gave Shevchenko freedom?
11 years of exile in the fortress of Orsk in Orenburg and cruel soldier's life will change the appearance of the artist beyond recognition. Shevchenko is relatively easy avoids a ban due to draw sympathy for him by local officials and officers. Self-portraits of those years relentlessly reflect his external and internal transformation: it is only a little over 40, but he looks very old
In a sense, Shevchenko was lucky in Orsk formed an expedition to explore the Aral sea. It took the artist. A part of the giant caravan of over 2 million vehicles and 3 million camels Shevchenko traveled more than 800 miles of wilderness. His contribution to the study of the Aral sea is priceless: Shevchenko has left more than 200 drawings ("Prayer for the dead"
, "Turkmen anyhow in the Kara-Tau"
), who had not only artistic, but also scientific value. But the harsh climate is finally deprived of his health. Shevchenko repeatedly ill with scurvy. From the hellish sun he faded eye: hazel, they became pale grey.
In 1857 the link Shevchenko will end. He is torn between Ukraine and Saint Petersburg, revels in the recognition, but also experiencing betrayal and disappointment, accusations of blasphemy and shameful history almost happened to marry a rude slutty 19-year-old girl of Luceria Polusmak. He cannot create his own hearth, his life's dream and Shevchenko drowns loneliness in alcohol. However, it continues to work, improve technique aquatini – a special type of engraving, in which are used etching acid. Undermined health reference exacerbates the inhalation of toxic fumes, the problem starts with the heart, liver failure.
March 9, 1861, he celebrated his 47th birthday, the next day, March 10, Shevchenko did not. "Russian Rembrandt", was buried in the Smolensk cemetery, but two months later his ashes according to his will, sent to Ukraine. Shevchenko was buried in Kaniv on the Dnieper that same cooler where he once was going to buy the land and wanted to build a house.Author: Anna Yesterday