Vasilyevich Lamtsov

Russia • 1899−1989

Graduated from Moscow. VKHUTEMAS (1926). From 1923 was part of the group ASNOVA. From his student years he participated in architectural. competitions. From 1927 he taught in VHUTEINe.. worked in the architectural Studio № 9 of the Moscow Soviet. From 1945 he taught at the Moscow architectural Institute, Professor. Author of projects of residential houses (1938-41), development project of the Yaroslavl highway in Moscow (1939). Work on theoretical problems of architecture.

He was born in 1899 in the village of Ryazan province Filippovichi of zaraiskiy district. In childhood, Ivan had to visit Zaraysk. A small beautiful town on the river Sturgeon with an old Kremlin and the Cathedral called the boy a sense of admiration that was reflected in his early paintings. In seven years (for the village is considered early), he arrives in the newly built Filippovich school, where studied with him and overage peasants. However, the doctrine was short-lived: the father, who lived in Moscow, took his family to himself.

In Moscow, Ivan went in a three-class school and then continued her studies in urban Solodovnikova-merchant Academy, where, he later recalled, "was prepared by accountants, but that has never bothered me. But the calligraphy, the drawing fascinated me, for excellence in drawing, I was awarded a book of poems." One of the memorable children's works was a portrait-a copy of Peter I.

Who knows how it would have developed further fate Lancova if he hadn't heard from comrades about the existence of a secondary Department at the School of painting, sculpture and architecture on Myasnitskaya street. An inexperienced person to do it was difficult, therefore, Ivan begins to engage in a private Studio of V. N. Meshkov - known artist of his time. "Meshkov, I was short, he told I. V. Lantsov. - Remember painting it in the class of a plaster head. I was approached by the Bags, looked up and said, "Paint the plaster, and you have a cloth model." How to make gypsum was not said, though praised for what good at drawing".

Soon I. V. Lanzov goes to study in the Studio of one of the disciples of V. A. Serov - Peter Ivanovich kelina. In the apartment of the artist in great distress sat studying: was announced only one vacancy in the 4th grade of School, and wanting much more. "In General subjects recalled Ivan - I came, but enough artistic skills were not. I asked P. Kalin to look at my pictures and say whether the good. Kelin looked up and said, "Sit down and draw!"

Painted nature of man. Kaelin sat down beside me and said: "You see the blur of the shadow and should not think that a person sits. Need to see what I paint, and the right to build the ratio of the picture." After work Kelin "my" the old man praised. Think it Serovskiy reception, as Kaelin was also a good portraitist. He taught not only to draw but to feel life."

In August 1916 Ivan Lanzov holds an examination in drawing in the School of painting, sculpture and architecture. "The competition was great - 12 people in the place. We painted plaster head of Zeus (by accident, my examination of the figure preserved). After work, took the drawings to the examiner, the figure was sealed and handed over to the Commission, so someone like drew, it was not known until the announcement of the exam results". The competition were two men, one of them was and Lanzov enrolled in the secondary Department of the School. The training lasted two years, in August 1918, he was transferred to the first year of the faculty of architecture.

Years of teaching will remember the difficulties of not enough funds. Lamzev moonlighting in the crowd, then entered the Studio of the Moscow drama theater where he had success in various roles. But to combine the two specialties was difficult, and he chose architecture. Ivan remembered free manner of communication of teachers with pupils, the constant debates and discussions that led to his passion for philosophy, and he went to the University to listen to lectures of Professor Chelpanov.

After the October revolution there was a change in the organization of art schools. In 1918, by decree of the Governmental Commission on Affairs of arts on the basis of the former School of painting, sculpture and architecture organized the II Free state art studios (I - Stroganov school, or CCM)1, in which the students had the right to choose a leader and stick to any directions and methods of training. Between areas there was a struggle, classes were held irregularly.

"During the transition to the faculty of architecture - recalled I. V. Lantsov - one of the teachers I did not know but the elders told him who and what it means. Then, in College, and then worked in the workshops of the great masters: I. V. Zholtovsky, A. V. Shchusev, I. V. Rylsky, A. E. Black, I. A. Fomin, and others. I first entered the group of Professor I. V. Zholtovsky, who among other things drew me in his theoretical works". The irregularity of the sessions gave the opportunity to combine study with work inspector of housing and the agricultural Department of the Zamoskvoretsky of the Council of people's deputies. In addition to the "free" listening to lectures in Moscow University, work and study in the workshops of Lancov passed examinations to the Institute of civil engineers, where the discipline was more than clear, moreover, were given food rations.

In December of 1920, decision of the CPC, signed by V. I. Lenin on the basis of I and II Free art workshops was established Higher artistic and technical workshops (VHUTEMAS). The organization and establishment of the Study coincided with the implementation of Lenin's plan of monumental propaganda. New school laid the foundations of high art industrial and architectural education in the Soviet Union.

Architectural faculty of the VKhUTEMAS had a special significance, as it was in fact the heir to three educational institutions: the Moscow Palace architectural school, joined in 1865 to the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture (pre 1918), architectural offices, UGVS (also closed in 1918) and of the faculty of architecture II of Free art workshops. New faculty had a large Autonomous rights. Among the faculty artists were V. A. Favorsky, p. P. Konchalovsky, Robert Falk, V. Tatlin, I. I. Mashkov, the sculptors I. M. Chaika, V. I. Mukhina, architect I. V. Zholtovsky, A. V. Shchusev, I. V. Rylsky. History of art and architecture taught by A. G. Gabrichevsky, N. I. Brunov and другие2.

The artistic and architectural faculties became a place of intensive creative research in the visual arts. "Young people, - wrote the people's Commissar of education Lunacharsky - the waves are often too wide. They are already dreaming about the city, what will it be in fifty years. But as a dream! With unprecedented practical invention, with the finest scientific calculation. Architectural faculty not pass at least one of the problems we have in Moscow"3.

In 1921 at the initiative of the students of the Studio of I. V. Zholtovsky were created (in addition to the existing three) joint workshop under the leadership of F. Krinsky, N. A. Ladovskiy and N. V. Dokuchaev, the principles of learning "outcomes" from the practice of VKhUTEMAS, so the Dean of the faculty Norbet was strongly against such a group. "Discuss ways of architectural education, told Lomzov, was on the faculty of architecture of hot and stormy. We, the supporters of Krinsky, defended his views and it came to sharp confrontations."

According to the decision of A. V. Lunacharsky group V. F. Krinsky was given the opportunity to work independently. Soon his method spread in all faculties. "We came into the Studio Krinsky, but rather created it - remember then Ivan, - it was necessary to conduct a new discipline called "space" under the leadership of Professor V. F. Krinsky. Then began to teach the students of S. A. Mochalov, M. A. Turkus, S. V. Glagolev. Later I had to teach this course at the architecture faculty, where he started to work by such masters as K. S. Melnikov, P. A. Votes and others." In the workshop of the architect V. F. Krinsky, and N. A. Ladovskiy were born in the projects of cities of the future, to match them was the layout of the tower of the third international Tatlin, V. E., which became the architectural symbol of the era.

In 1921, under the leadership of Professor N. A. I. V. Ladovskiy Lamzev implementing the project, the water tower layout (in the pre-school was not the practice to create layouts that complement the drawings). His project implemented a new idea: utilitarian engineering construction, and city buildings must be subject to architectural design, to solve not only functional-technical and artistic. The artistic side was solved in new ways, without the use of traditional compositional schemes: in accordance with the purpose the object was presented as the volume of a cylinder-tank in a contrast comparison of spatially and dynamically distinct support structures. It was one of the first independent works of Ivan marked the beginning of his career. Student work performed under the guidance of Professor Ladovskiy, repeatedly published in print, lazowska projects water tower and Elevator exhibited at the exhibition in Paris.

Especially memorable for I. V. Lantsova was 1923, when by the decision of the people's Commissariat it among several students nominated faculty members. At the same time, he continues training and performing at the layout of the training -set for identification of patterns of organization of space (dynamics and rhythm, mass and weight). 1923 starts and social activities Ramzova - he is one of the founders of the Association of new architects (ASNOVA).

At the same time I. V. Lanzov involved in the design and construction of the all-Union agricultural exhibition and the design competition for a Palace of labor. Lantsova I. V., M. P. Korzhev (father of the famous Soviet artist) and V. A. Petrov was tasked with designing individual objects, the old and the new village at the exhibition. The work was under the supervision of Professor Alexei Mikhailovich Rukhledev (author of River station in Khimki). For this project, and the construction of old houses in Arkhangelsk (difficult work, huge logs were placed by hand in the song "Dubinushka") of young architects were awarded with Diplomas of II degree exhibition of Agricultural and natural premium (coat sheepskin fur suit, fur hat, and 10 rubles).

In 1926, an order came for the release of I. V. Lantsova and his fellow students from the workshops. The thesis he defends, on the theme "communal Project of the residential quarter" (schematics and layout). The proposed complex consisted of typical residential buildings, repetitive in plan, with community building as the compositional centre. The project of I. V. Lantsova have seen the features of the future development of architecture on the basis of the industrialization and typification of the building, but clearly revealed and the search for artistic solutions.

Remembering his studies, I. V. Lanzov always with gratitude talked about the teachers, the atmosphere of creative enthusiasm: "the Search for truth and life the truth was more important than a noisy, but cheap and empty success. Time itself has imposed on the art print of revolutionary romanticism, and the spirit I always tried to keep in their work." VKhUTEMAS was the epitome of Soviet architecture of 1920-ies. Not by chance the projects of that period and today are of great interest.

In the years 1926-1928 I. V. Lanzov publishes a series of theoretical articles on architecture and aesthetics ("On the left-hand phrase in architecture," "the question of the dialectic in architecture"4, etc.), projects of the sports club "Red Moscow" (together with the architect V. A. Petrov, partially implemented) and Polygraphic exhibition in Moscow.

In 1927, VKhUTEMAS was renamed vkhutein in the architecture faculty which, after the merger of two previously existing departments formed the main compartment (with a one-year course of study artistic disciplines) and the actual architecture faculty (II-V courses). Professor V. F. Krinsky, the head of special architectural design II course, led a group of young teachers who have graduated from VHUTEMAS, among them were I. V. Lanzov, combining teaching with work in public and architectural organizations.

In 1927 appeared essentially the first textbook for architectural composition (author V. F. Krinsky, I.; Lanzov, M. A. Turkus), which includes the discipline of "Space". Course in the theory of architectural composition is a step on the path of scientific justification of architecture as art.

In the first five years I. V. Lanzov becomes a member of the Scientific-technical Council, consisting of leading specialists. The Council's recommendations were taken into account when drafting all the most important buildings of the country - up to 200 objects per year: housing and public buildings in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Orsk, Lisichansk, Magnitogorsk. Here is how this speaks I. V. Lantsov: "In I929 year, working ASNOVA, we saved millions of rubles, as redesigned many of the objects in order to reduce the cost and at the same time to improve the interior and exterior".

I. V. Lanzov continues to teach as associate Professor Vhuteina. Does not pass and the various architectural competitions, projects of the Palace of Soviets (1931, 1). Palace of machinery, Palace of labour in Okhotny Ryad (1932), which left a noticeable trace in the history of Soviet architecture. In 1929 I. V. Lanzov comes into WOPR - all-Russian society of proletarian architects, and with the formation of a single creative unions (1937) became a member of the Union of Soviet architects, where he leads a large public work: he is a member of the Board of the Moscow organization, member of the jury of architectural competitions. While Ivan is plenty of work creative: as part of architectural Studio No. 9 of the planning service of the Moscow city Council, he is involved in the design of residential and public buildings, industrial facilities, in the planning of populated areas and parks. 1938 - projects of residential houses in the village Lianozovo, the bridge across the river of UPA in Tula; 1939 - one of the variants of the project of the Klyazma forest Park, the construction project of the Yaroslavl highway, collaboration in the project of the Park of culture and rest in Stupino; 1941 - collaboration in the project of residential houses in the village of Rublevo.

At the beginning of the great Patriotic war by I. V. Lantsov was appointed chief objects in the disguise of Moscow, in 1942 became the head of the Department of museums of the Chief of Committee on Affairs of arts at SNK the USSR and in 1945 - chief of the State Committee for architecture.

After the war, Ivan returned to Moscow architectural Institute, and from now on, teaching became his main business. From 1946 to 1955 he was Dean of the faculty of General training, while continuing to develop jointly with the chair of fundamentals of architectural design Professor V. F. Krinsky and Professor M. A. Turkus scientific and theoretical basis of the course of the spatial composition. This course Professor I. V. Lanzov reads not only at the Institute, but since 1960 in the Moscow artistic-technical (Stroganov) school, where for the first time introduced such a discipline.

Significant contributions I. V. Lantsova to the development problems of architectural composition. He made a number of textbooks, in the book "the Elements of the architectural-spatial composition" (1934), jointly with V. F. Krinsky, and M. A. Turkus summarizes the experience of the VKhUTEMAS on the named issue (reprinted in 1936 and 1968, and to this day remains unsurpassed). In 1962, beyond the textbook "Introduction to architectural design", where one of the authors - I. V. Lantsov. The scientific work of Ivan were published in the journals "Print and the revolution", "Red virgin soil", "Architecture of the USSR", "Construction of Moscow". For merits in training and education of architects I. V. Lantsov was awarded many orders and medals.

Ivan was always friendly, willing to hurry to the rescue in solving both professional and everyday problems. All who had the opportunity to chat with him, remember that his speech was slow, as if every word he had previously weighed. His keen, if not tenacious look that penetrated through the interlocutor. With him it was impossible to dissemble, to engage in idle chatter.

Ivan said: "Looking back on your life, thinking about today and tomorrow, about the generation of architects that will come after us and will create art of the future, more and more are thinking about how to teach them not only the profession, but also Holy, pure relation to the architecture, to life, to people." Professor I. V. Lantsov himself has consistently followed these principles, devoting his life to Architecture with a capital letter and the Moscow architectural Institute.

(Y. A. Kazhdan. Architecture and construction of Moscow №4)

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