"Overgrown pond" – one of the most famous landscapes of Vasily Polenov. Along with "Moscow yard"and "Grandma's garden"they make a kind of trilogy, elegiac narrative about surviving the century noble houses.
Everything is so recognizable that even, it seems, is nothing to write Polenov and add any words would be superfluous. Here's an old pond with a muddy bottom. He had cleaned and "blooms": the water of the seashore was covered with duckweed, and closer to the center of pond covered with water lilies. Thickets of reeds comes, conquering territory from the bathers. Abandoned Park with a silver poplar tree at the jetty and bent to the water with oaks and wild grown. Eloquent detail: the Board of the old jetty turned white from long use and frequent walking. Must be once a footbridge led to the pool, where it was noisy and fun, but now lead nowhere: the small sandy beach is completely overgrown with grass. Alone school essays, not to mention the art of the essay, how much is written about the dreamy sadness and silent Majesty of nature in the picture Polenova "Overgrown pond"!
But apart from all known realistic, have "Overgrown pond" and a mystical subtext.
Where are the logs found nature for painting "Overgrown pond"?
In the summer of 1877, the year the 33-year-old Petersburger Vasily Polenov was in the vicinity of Kiev. He came to visit her sister of Faithwhose husband Ivan Petrovich Khrushchov worked in Kiev the Director of the Institute for noble maidens. In the summer the family Grudovich rented a cottage in the village of Parsley, a few dozen versts from Kiev. Now it is Kiev Svyatoshinsky district, Kiev region. The village of Parsley has retained its name, residents there are only about six hundred, the wilderness is about the same as it was under the Logs, the rare tourist, fisherman of Parsley will attract, except that its lakes. Ponds there is a cascade, they are called why-that "Black lake". Why is "Black" – unknown. Maybe because of the color of water, which because of the high trees with dense crowns are almost not penetrated by the sun. One is forced to recall Gogol's eerie story "may night, or the drowned": "As quietly sways the water, like a little child in the cradle! – continued Hanna, pointing to the pond, sullen with dark maple forest and weeping by the willows potapivske their plaintive branches". Perhaps the lake is "Black" because some beliefs that are associated with drowning or evil spirits that abound in the land of Kiev.
By the way, just a few kilometers from Petrushkov is a town of Bucha, a favorite place of the young Mikhail Bulgakov, where his parents built a cottage, the only private housing – even the famous house in Kiev on the Andriyivskyy descent, which is now a Museum, was removable. Cottage in Bucha seven children Bulgakov loved, eager to get every summer. Exactly the same Gogol's nature, what we see in the landscape Polenov, rebellious, violent and offensive needs no man – mesmerizing and Caravela the future author of "the Master and Margarita", which will tell later about me: "I am the mystic writer".
In 1877, the year in petrushky Polenov created the first sketch for the painting "Overgrown pond". In composition he hardly different from the picture. Only a woman there sitting on a bench in the garden, and standing at the shore. Then the logs would go, and two years later, in 1879, will write well-known and beloved "Overgrown pond" with dark stagnant water, reflecting century-old oaks. That's just a woman "will push" very much on the periphery. Not to pull attention. To – as Pushkin – only "indifferent nature" continued regardless of human presence, "beauty eternal Shine.".
Less successful, but more appropriate to the original sketch version of the picture Polenov write in 1880..
"Overgrown pond" at the exhibition of the Wanderers
The landscape will take a good, it will be shown along with "Grandma's garden," VII travelling exhibition. Conservatives will praise him for it is an academic duplooy composition: the foreground, with grass and small flowers of chamomile, as it should be detailed; second, receding into the distance through the trees, more generalized, vague. Innovators will celebrate the new-fangled impressionist planarnot and attention to the game world. This is not surprising: in the mid-1870s, when France was held the first impressionist exhibitionpensioner of the Academy of arts of Polenov lived in Paris, shared Repin apartment in Montmartre. And the lilies – real fetish Frenchman Claude Monet– landscape Polenov appeared just before.
But perhaps most importantly the artistic dignity of "Overgrown pond" is his character. Polenov in General will be more likely to appreciate the skill of the colorist. "Overgrown pond" is built on rich shades of green, so varied and finely nuanced, art historian Tamara Yurova will even notice: "I think the landscape there are no two identical tones".
The mysterious woman with the landscape Polenov
Many people know that the woman on the bench in front of the overgrown pond Polenov wrote with his sister Faith. It also can be seen in the landscape, "grandmother's garden". But not everyone knows that Faith and the Basil was not just a brother and sister – they were twins, born on the same day, may 20 (June 1), 1844. Basil will live to 83, he finds the revolution and Soviet power; in the 1870s close to the future Emperor Alexander III (Repin even sinned to the conceited after meeting with the heir), Polenov in the new state will be one of the first who will receive the "people's artist of the Republic" – such a long and eventful he will drop a life. But Faith, twin sister and a very close Polenov people will die from lung disease in 1881, the year, less than two years after the creation of "Overgrown pond". "Poor thing, she suffered greatly from the incessant heat. God, what a difficult time"will record the logs in those days.
Before the death of 37-year-old Faith will go to my brother Basil with an unusual request – to write a great picture of the life of Christ, which the brother had long sought, but could not bring myself for it to be taken (most likely, it was about the painting, known now under the name "Christ and the sinner"). And brother, you will obey. Paintings by Polenov the gospel stories not as famous as its scenery, but to write them an artist inspired and will be a lot like performing the will of a deceased sister. Such works have Polenov about 60. Comrade Vasily Polenov, Fyodor Chaliapin, with whom they spent time in the estate of the patron Savva Mamontov in Abramtsevoadmired: "His biblical scenes – how could he combine his soul with this strong and colorful grandeur with the silence of a simple Russian lake with carp? Is it because and its lakes there is a spirit of deity?"
Charismatic "Overgrown pond" Polenov laid a kind of tradition. Lakes, bridges, Lily will excitedly write the beloved disciple of Polenov, Konstantin Korovin (1, 2, 3, 4) and Isaac Levitan (1, 2, 3, 4), and levitanovskie "At the pool"it is considered a direct continuation of the themes Polenov. There your "Overgrown pond"and younger contemporary, Moscow Valentin Serov.
Himself Polenov "Overgrown pond" will remain a mystery. And only on the breadth of the associations of the viewer depends on how to interpret this landscape in a more traditional, nostalgic manor, Chekhov, Turgenev key or mystical, Gogol-Bulgakov. Biography of Polenov gives grounds for both first and second.