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Italia • 1494−1557

Pontormo (real name Jacopo Carucci; may 24, 1494, Pontormo, now a suburb of Empoli — January 2, 1557, Florence) — Italian painter, representative of the Florentine school, one of the founders of mannerism.

At the age of ten he lost his father, Pontormo went to Florence, where he spent his entire life. He studied with Piero di Cosimo and Andrea del Sarto. In his early works the influence of Leonardo da Vinci and Sarto (painted lunettes in the Villa medicea di Poggio a Caiano). Later a great influence on his work had a familiarity with the engravings of dürer. Pontormo gradually departs from the tradition of the Renaissance. Significant work: "Christ at Emmaus", 1525, Uffizi, Florence; "Madonna with St. Joseph and Saint John the Baptist", the Hermitage, St. Petersburg; "the Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth", the Church of San Michele, Carmignano, 1528-1530.

PONTORMO, JACOPO DA (Pontormo, Iacopo da) (crust. the name of Carucci) (1494-1557), Italian painter, one of the founders of the Mannerist trend in art of the Renaissance.

Born in Pontormo (Tuscany) may 24, 1494 in the family of the painter B. Carucci. Studied mainly in the workshop of Andrea del Sarto (1512) – along with Rosso Fiorentino, with whom he cooperated in the early period. Lived mainly in Florence.

His first important work, the frescoes in the Church of Santissima Annunziata in Florence (1514-1516), solved in harmony-a smooth manner Sarto, though more emotional. However, the altar of the cycle with the story of Joseph in Egypt (C. 1515-1518; some of it is in the London National gallery) is full of anxious and troubled figures. Personal style of Pontormo, with its exquisitely graceful figure and cool colors, bright emerges in a pastoral-allegorical paintings of the Villa Medici in Poggio a Caiano (1519-1521). In the frescoes from the Passion of Christ in Certosa (Carthusian monastery) of the Val d EMA, Galuzzo (1523-1527) the influence of the Northern Renaissance (dürer's engravings).

Fully manieristic altar images 1520 years (Christ at Emmaus, 1525, Uffizi, Florence; Madonna with St. Joseph and Saint John the Baptist, the Hermitage, St. Petersburg; Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth, the Church of San Michele, Carmignano, 1528-1530; especially the famous, "strange and new" style (Vasari) the entombment, 1526-1528, Church of Santa Felicita, Florence) – with their nervous coloristic and light splashes and contrasts, sometimes deliberately surreal combination of natural environment with the speculative symbolism (all-Seeing Eye triangle in Emmaus), fluttering lines that seem to be dematerialized shapes and draping. In this period, the artist has performed several songs for the cartoons of Michelangelo (among these, for the most part preserved of the works is Venus and Cupid, Accademia gallery, Florence); the influence of great masters had an effect in independent things Pontormo (10 000 martyrs or Martyrdom of St. Mauritius and his warriors, 1529-1530, Galleria Pitti, Florence).

Pontormo was also an outstanding portraitist, able to sharply delineate the inner life of his models, usually presented closed-impervious lonely on a dark background (Cosimo the Elder, late 1510-ies, the Uffizi; the Young man, 1525, Museum of Villa Guinigi, Lucca; a Young man with a halberd, P. Getty Museum, Malibu, CA; etc.). The best of his later frescoes (in particular, of the choir of the Church of San Lorenzo, 1546-1556) have not survived and are known only from preparatory drawings. A brilliant draftsman, Pontormo left a significant graphic heritage. In recent years, led an increasingly solitary life, secluded in his workshop.

Pontormo died in Florence, January 2, 1557.

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