Efremovna Pestel (Bali)

Russia • 1887−1952

Painter, graphic artist. Studied at the Stroganov Uch-school (1904-06) in the Studio K. Juon (1906-07). In 1911-12 he worked with Vladimir Favorsky, P. Maurice, K. Zefirova in the Studio "On the tower" (Moscow). In 1912-13 drew in free studios of Paris. From the 1920's in Moscow, doing hood. education students worked in the Center. house hood. education of children, in the school office ist. Museum.

(1887, Moscow — 1952), painter and teacher. Studied at the Stroganov Uch-school in 1906-07 in the Studio K. Juon (Moscow), in 1909-11 in the art. school keisha K. (Budapest). In 1920-30's taught painting and drawing at created A. V. Bakushinskii school "Children's creativity" (Moscow).

P. belonged to the proponents of free education. Developed, teoretic. aspects of the PED. current. Believed that the child initially hidden creative forces, the release of which should contribute to PED. process. Special attention was paid to aesthetic. the education of children. According to her, growing up. pedagogy must make a turn from the mass of its forms to a specific person, to the disclosure of its creative potential.

In conditions of acute social confrontations of the first years of the revolution P. put forward the thesis of the harmony as a means of solving conflicts between child and world. Hence the keen interest on the individual abilities of the child, to Express, to study especially the children. to portray creativity. According to claim, founded. the task of the teacher is to give as wide as possible to reveal this ability, providing baby a variety of natural material. These ideas are reflected in the program to make art for schools I and II degree (1925-26), based on K-Roy was supposed to "claim in the child."

Aesthetic. education P. considered as a creative process, as a result of which the child learns not simply to reproduce mechanically their audience's perception and understanding of the claim, the intentions of the artist, picturesque and plasticity. for-mu. P. put before the teachers of drawing a particular method, task to help pupils such exercises, which will be a stimulus for examining works of comprehending its essence and at the same time the development of imagination, expression, det. views.

Rejecting traditionally accepted in the school method srisovyvaniya fixed nature, she believed that only the movable nature can awaken aesthetic. feeling riveting and exciting attention.

Often in his PED. practice P. encourage the children to think about big art. paintings. Hence, the role in the aesthetic. the education of the students she took to exhibitions, ucenic. works.

PED. the value and experience of school "Children's creativity" a swarm consisted of exposing children to nature, elements of decorative art, and process art. design various. objects. Children create their own free composition: "Bird", "Tree", "City", etc. then the most successful compositions were selected for production, play. P. students received not only a solid, stable work skills, but also solved purely artistic. tasks, learned the elements of picturesque appearance, was a life esthetically advanced people.

Vol.: Khudozh. school "Children's creativity", in the book: Khudozh. education in the practice of the present-day. schools, ed. Sher, L., 1925 (et al.); Drawing in the younger group I level, "art in school", 1928, № 2; Methodical. issues of teaching fine arts at school of stage II, ibid., 1929, No. 8.

Lit.: Bakushinskii A. B., Art. creativity and education, Moscow, 1925.

K. V. Kulaev.

(Pedagogical dictionary)

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