Mikhail
Ivanovich Kozlovsky

Russia • 1753−1802

1753, St.-Petersburg - 1802, there In 1764, at the age of eleven, the son of the trumpeter of a galley fleet, the future outstanding Russian sculptor of the XVIII century M. I. Kozlovsky, became a pupil of OH. The years of his teaching coincided with a formative period in European art of classicism, one of the founders and most prominent representatives of which in the Russian plastic and he was subsequently. After graduating from the Academy of arts in 1773 with Grand gold medal, Kozlovsky as the pensioner lives in Rome (1774-79), where he studied antique art and painting and plastic of the Renaissance. Especially it attracts the oeuvre of Michelangelo Buonarroti. His pensioner's trip Kozlovsky made in France, where he spent a year and where the Marseilles Academy of arts awarded him the title of academician. In 1780 he returned home. The main theme of the works of Kozlowski in the initial period of creativity is the theme of civil courage, strength of spirit and sacrifice. The heroes of his reliefs on subjects from the history of Ancient Rome (the Marble Palace in St. Petersburg) sacrifice themselves in the name of the Fatherland and the public good: "Farewell Regula with the citizens of Rome" (1780), "Camille saves Rome from the Gauls" (1780-81). The sublime and simple Stroy image, clear composition, thoughtfulness and clarity of each line and form - all this is perfectly combined with the architecture of the building, which was built in the style of early classicism. But especially harmonious was the Commonwealth of the sculptor, the architect in carrying out plaster reliefs for the Concert hall in Ekaterininskom Park of Tsarskoye Selo. The pavilion was erected by George. Quarenghi in the style of Mature classicism (1783-88). Common theme of all the reliefs is the music. Here Orpheus is playing his lyre, taming wild animals, Apollo plays music before the CERA-Roy, here and Muse with attributes of the arts. The rhythmic structure of the reliefs, their balanced composition, a smooth current contours of the figures and the majestic solemnity of the images - all contribute to the creation of the musical atmosphere of the pavilion. In 1784-85 he was a sculptor has made of marble large statue of Empress Catherine II in the image of the Roman goddess of wisdom Minerva. Ancient shrouded cloak and crowned with a hat (the attribute of the goddess), Empress one hand indicates lying at her feet the trophies, symbolizing their victory and the other holds a scroll with inscribed on it the laws that issued it for "the welfare of his subjects". So Kozlovsky embodies the idea of the perfect monarch, the defender of the Fatherland and wise legislator. As complex allegorical meaning and the other a marble statue, executed Kozlowski in the second half of the 1780s, "the Vigil of Alexander the great". The image of the ancient hero was the sculptor for the embodiment of the moral ideals of the Enlightenment, upbringing a strong will and desire for knowledge. Composition and total plastic solution of the statue imbued with the spirit of "quiet greatness and noble simplicity", all is simple and proportionality, all built on the smooth flow of contours and shapes. The body of the young man covered in drowsy numbness, muscles of the as if "damp" thin film Matt cover marble, head bowed to the arm resting on the knee... But the calm is deceptive. Preserved many images Kozlovsky, most of which are in the nature of preparatory sketches for future works of sculpture are associated with the circle of themes and subjects (mythological, biblical and Evangelical) and means of artistic expression. However, a number of his drawings can be considered as independent, fully finished works of graphic art. There are two drawings, full of drama and emotional intensity, "Death of Hippolytus" and "Theseus leaves Ariadne" (both 1792). 1788-90 Kozlowski again spent in Paris, where he was going "for the greater acquisition of knowledge in the arts" and where getting a tremendous stream of impressions caused by events transpiring in his eyes revolution. In revolutionary Paris, was born the subject of the next major works - the statue of Polikrat (1790). The story of the death of the samian tyrant POLYCRETE taken from the history of Ancient Greece, was the sculptor for the allegorical response to the events of today. This is meant to convey a passionate desire for freedom, sense of suffering and a painful doom reflected the artist's desire to make art more emotional, enriching his figurative language. In 1792, Kozlovsky had completed one of his most beautiful works was the marble statue "Sleeping Cupid", where he created the image of an idyllic and harmonious. Similar in mood to the image given and a small marble statue of "Psyche" (1801) - the embodiment of spiritual purity, dreams of a happy, uncomplicated childhood. In the second half of the 1790s Kozlowski is attracted to themes of Russian history (the statue of "Prince Yakov Dolgoruky tearing the Royal decree," 1797; "Hercules on horseback", 1799). The desire to create an image of high spiritual nobility and courage, its pattern is close to popular notions of the hero, most fully realized by the sculptor the monument to A. V. Suvorov in St. Petersburg (1799-1801). Bronze knight in armor and feathered helmet covers the shield triangular altar and impetuous stroke of the sword enters. His head proudly outstretched, movement energetic. Cloak worn over armor, falling pleats. This is a symbolic image, in allegorical form, glorifying Russia and its great commander. At the end of the XVIII century the best Russian sculptors were hired to work on an update of the sculptures of the Grand cascade in Peterhof. The role of Kozlowski particularly significant: he created the group "Samson tearing the lion's mouth" occupies a Central place in the ideological design of this ensemble. In Peter the great's time became widespread in the art of allegory, according to which the biblical Samson (identified with the Holy Sampsonia, in day of celebrating of memory of which, on 27 June 1709 was the victory over the Swedes at Poltava) symbolized Russia's victory, and the lion (emblem of Sweden) - defeated Charles XII. Kozlowski used this allegory, creating a Grand work, where in a duel the mighty Titan with the beast reveals the theme of the sea power of Russia. (In the years of the great Patriotic war the statue was stolen by the Nazis. In 1947, sculptor V. L. Simonov, with the participation of N. V. Mikhailov, performed according to its design, the new model, thus returning the lost monument to new generations of viewers.) From 1794 Kozlowski became a Professor of sculpture class AH. Among his pupils famous in the future, the sculptors S. S. Pimenov and V. I. Demuth-Malinovsky. Kozlovsky died suddenly in the Prime of his talent.

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