Akimovich Akimov

Russia • 1754−1814

The son of a typesetter of the Senate typography. A graduate of the Academy of Arts from 1764 to 1773. Received medals : 1769 - 2 silver; 1771 - 1 silver; 1772-2 gold; 1773-1 gold for the program: "the Great Prince Svyatoslav, kissing his mother and children on his return from the Danube to Kiev." Was overseas pensioner from 1773 to 1778 "Appointed" for the painting: "the Prometheus with Minerva". In 1779 defined in Academic classes for the training of beneficiaries 1782-academician for the painting "the self-Immolation of Hercules at the stake in the presence of his friend Philoctetes, upon receipt of deadly clothing from his former lover Deianira abducted by the Centaur Newsom"; 1785-adjunct Professor; 1791 - Director of the Imperial tapestry manufactory. With 1794 - senior Professor; 1797 - associate rector. The Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts from 1796 to 1799, a Member of the Academic Council in 1791 he Left 15 thousand rubles for the maintenance from your name on the interest of the three children of "poor artistic children, the fathers of which was raised at the Academy.(Kondakov)

The whole life of Ivan Akimovich Akimov (1754-1814) was associated with the St. Petersburg Academy of arts: childhood alumnus, then a foreign retiree, academician, Professor, and finally rector - he has gone through all possible stages of an academic career. At nine years old lost his father, a typesetter of the Senate typography, the boy himself has filed a petition with the request to take his academic training at government expense; he wrote about need, about how loves painting, and made a few drawings. So in 1764, Ivan Ivan hit the newly formed "the most illustrious Academy of arts" - all-powerful institution designed to regulate the entire artistic life of the state.

President it was then, I. I. Betskoy, reader to the Empress. Already an old man, not having any previous relationship to art, he became head of the Academy of arts. However, not only the Academy - he obeyed, and the office of the buildings, the Cadet corps. Educational institution for noble maidens, the Moscow foundling, Commercial, school and Widows ' home. And everywhere he intended faithfully to carry out a complete reform in the education of "a new breed of people", based on the principles of hard and sometimes cruel, and completely ignoring the natural inclinations and abilities of their wards. Under this system all contributed to the formation of a creative personality. At the same age Akimov, who as children came to the Academy, particularly pinned great hopes - they had to reveal the fruits of the new method. But the unconditional preference of obedience and notes - "virtues" - talent and talent generation made sufficiently colorless.

The system of teaching was impersonal - the Professor had his students, and was on duty in the classroom at a time. The dominant place was given to the picture, was of great importance and composition, "essay". Akimov studied successfully - over the years spent at the Academy, he received small and large silver medal for drawing, the 2nd gold medal for the program "the Great Prince Izyaslav Mstislavovich almost cut to pieces by the soldiers, it is not learned in battle, offers them" (1772). The following year, at the time of release, he was awarded for his film "the Great Prince Svyatoslav, kissing his mother and children on his return from the Danube in Kiev" gold medal, which gave the right to travel abroad, to Italy.

Nineteen year old artist went by sea to Calais through Paris to Marseille, got to Bologna, which lasted this way for four months. It turned out, however, that in those years in Bologna was full-scale classes and Akimov had to settle for copying paintings in the city gallery. Not getting from St. Petersburg in response to its numerous requests for permission to move to Rome, a young artist in the end decided to do it illegally. But in Rome at first, was expecting his frustration - Capitol Academy was then rather a society of artists, had private students than a school with classes and programs. Thanks to the recommendation of the famous patron I. Shuvalov, who traveled to Italy, Akimov managed to get into the Studio of the famous painter Pompeo button. Most likely, following the advice battoni, his Russian student took a trip to Venice and to overcome the weakness of color, there began to copy the work of Venetian masters (whose "hot caramel" captured shortly before the teacher Akimova - Losenko).

In Rome historical themes were replaced mythological: were there written "Narcissus, admiring his reflection in the water", "Dido and Aeneas sheltering in a cave from the storm", "Faun playing around with the kid" and "Prometheus, making a statue of Minerva, according to the commandment" (1775) - the last work Akimov was elected "assigned" to the Academy.

Upon returning to St. Petersburg from January, 1779 Governors appointed by the instructor in life classes, and in August of that year was "set the program assigned in the picturesque and historic art Ivan Akimov, and the way the plot is the following: "the self-Immolation of Hercules at the stake in the presence of his friend Philoctetes, upon receipt of deadly clothing from his former lover Deianira abducted by the centaur Newsom". Here Akimov demonstrated their skills of layout and the skill of the draftsman - perfectly built composition in the definition of ratios of volumes reminiscent of the sculptural group, the figures are expressive and well drawn, although the flavor remains vulnerable point of his painting. This painting Governors in 1782, was recognized as an academician.

The attempts of the artist to further develop the national theme in the history of painting has failed. "Prince Rurik, when instructing the demise of his baby Igor, and with it the reign of his kinsman Oleg", "the Baptism of Grand Duchess Olga", "Novgorod, subverting Perun" - a program of these paintings were dictated, as a rule. Academy, history painting which, although still was in the traditional hierarchy of genres at the top, was in deep crisis. Mosielele and abstraction became an integral qualities of academic art.

Akimova cannot reproach of ingratitude to nurture its Academy - he was always ready to follow the path of it, no matter how fruitless that may be. And although the external pattern of life Akimova quite safe - after academic, he received a professorship (1785), and then became rector (1796 - 1800), taught drawing to the children of Emperor Paul I, was in charge of the tapestry manufactory of his own work appeared less. And increasingly, it was not an independent composition, and image for St. Petersburg cathedrals, the execution of which then the audience welcomed the traces of a deep study of Guido Reni and the Carracci brothers.

The revival of public life in the early years of the nineteenth century, "the great start of Alexander's days", the explosion of national feelings caused by the desire to appeal to historical events, but not so distant from the present. Akimov writes paintings on subjects unusual for him - "the feat of the Azov regiment flag bearer starichkova" (1806) and "Peter I, writing a decree to the Senate in the camp under the Rod" (1807). They have not survived and therefore cannot be judged on their merits, however, about the first of them later noted, "a Patriotic story... of course, played a major role and took the easy success of this mediocre work."

But if the atmosphere of the Academy was not conducive to disclosure of creative abilities Akimova, it was another side of its activities - teaching. He taught at the Academy for a long 35 years, and among his pupils were such famous artists as A. I. Ivanov, V. K. Shebuev, A. E. Egorov. But it is hard to say what they owe Akimov, probably a strong figure, which was most appreciated by his contemporaries.

Has been preserved and authentic evidence of its educational system, teaching techniques. Can they be judged only indirectly - one of the disciples Akimov A. V. Stupin (the former, incidentally, his pupil, and lived in his house), later himself a famous teacher, apparently has inherited some of the methods of his teacher. He kept not extant "is a Brief instruction on painting" - a set of theoretical views Akimova. Thinking about his disciples Governors bequeathed the capital of the Academy of arts that it contained "pupils from poor artistic children," and is the same Academy, which took the whole life of Ivan Akimovich Akimov, inherited the books of his library and his collection of paintings.

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