Semyonovna Golubkina

Russia • 1864−1927

Anna Semyonovna Golubkina was born in the ancient city of Zaraysk. Hometown big happy family that valued and protected her talent, has always been close and dearly loved it. Artistic ability a sculptor of the future started early. As a child, she is well painted and sculpted. Modest income of the family was forced to think about earnings, and twenty-five year old girl went to Moscow to study the technique of firing the ware and porcelain painting. In the private art school on its outstanding talent drew the attention of the famous sculptor and a sensitive teacher, S. M. Volnukhin. His education continues in another area famous for its democratic traditions of the Moscow school of painting, sculpture and architecture. Demanding of himself, striving young artist to achieve a life of expression in their works. Her student sculptures repeatedly recognized as the best and stood out among other students ' work. About a year spends Golubkina in the walls of the St. Petersburg Academy of arts.

But even great respect for the well-known sculptor V. A. Beklemishev could not reconcile it with the academic principles of teaching. The thirst for independence in creativity leads Golubkina in Paris. Three times visited the artist in France. The most fruitful was 1897 - 1899 years, when she used the advice of renowned master Auguste Rodin. In Paris, comes to her first well-deserved success. At the exhibition of Spring Salon sculpture "old Age" (1898) drew the attention of the press, and the artist was awarded a medal.

His way in art Golubkina beginning at the end of the last century. A keen sense of leaving the old world feeling of impending terrible events was typical of the attitude of many artists. Boldly introduces the life and creative work in sculpture, the theme of the awakening of the people. "The iron one" (1897), "work" (1900), "Slave" (1909) characterized by great force of expression. Particularly significant is the sculpture "Walking man" (1903). The confident stride depicted reveals the emotional content of the motif movements, conveys a purposeful will to fight. Energetic modeling emphasizes the Titanic power of forms. The hyperbolic focus of the media turns it into a poetic symbol of a revolution. Allegorical image is typical of plastic and the famous relief "the Wave" (1902), decorating the entrance to the Moscow Art theatre. The struggle of person and elements personifies the rebellious spirit of the era.

Golubkina had the fortune to be a witness and participant of major social upheaval. She was closely connected with the revolutionary movement. From his youth brought up in an atmosphere of revolutionary sentiment, it is in the student years he attended the social democratic circles, he kept illegal literature, distributing leaflets, care for the wounded during the December armed uprising, were arrested. By the order of Moscow Committee RSDRP, in 1905 Golubkina creates an inspired portrait of Karl Marx.

By nature Golubkina was a courageous, strong-willed and selfless person to have a strong life beliefs that sensitively responds to suffering and injustice. She was infinitely good, and her kindness always brought effective help.

Golubkina took an active part in human destinies, she organized artel of the dismissed from factory shoemakers, arranged theatre for working Zaraysk. And when in 1914 at the Museum of fine arts (now the Pushkin Museum to them. A. S. Pushkin) opened the first personal exhibition of the artist, all proceeds from the sale of sculptures of the money she handed over for the benefit of wounded soldiers, and she was destitute.

Sincere sympathy to the person, the interest in his inner life define the main characteristic of creativity Golubkina. The portrait genre is Central to its legacy. In any model, whether a simple man of the people or deeply intellectual creative person, she always reveals the spiritual essence, emphasizes the strength of the human spirit. A significant and stately S. P. Golubkin, the grandfather of the sculptor (1897), sad and wise "Ivan the forgetful" (1908), hope and faith expresses "Man" (1910). When the accuracy of social characteristics, Golubkina avoids the ordinary. Keenly looking at a specific person, it raises the image above the everyday, reveals the most essential in the personality. Multivalued psychological expression portraits, because it reveals the complex spiritual state of the model. The rigor of classical beauty of the face of the woman of the people ("Maria", 1906) relaxed thoughtfulness of look. Soft modeling of white marble of insight. Filled with dramatic contrast, plastic, marble bust, L. I. Sidorova, who simultaneously read pride and irony, kindness and bitterness. A picturesque interpretation of form in the portrait of marble T. V. ROS-sinskey (1913) expresses the emotional stress perception of the world as a teenager.

Golubkina was typical subtle sense of material - marble, tree, clay, their expressive opportunities, decorative qualities. But the most favorite material was clay, dutifully relayed every light touch of fingers, allowing you to work quickly, preserving the freshness of impressions of nature. Plastic beauty sculptural forms in clay has the immediacy of the sketch. In the finished product traces the process of working on the material, revealing the formation of the artistic image of its amorphous mass. Most impressively, this effect is manifested in images of natural life began - "Fire" (1900), "Bump" (1904), "Earth" (1904), "Bushes" (1908). A two-figure composition "Fire" is designed for the fireplace. Curled up in a ball sitting figures men and women had to be located so that a flickering light from the flames illuminated the energetic forms filled plastic juicy dramatic emotional power. Years of hard and selfless creativity, the excitement associated with a personal exhibition in 1914, undermined the health Golubkina. A serious illness upon. for many years precludes her from working productively. Until the mid 20-ies she works mainly in small forms: molds model toys, carving of ivory and sea shells delicate cameos. Fully gives himself to social and educational activities, which culminated in the book-confession "a Few words about the craft of the sculptor."

The breakthrough came in 1925. Golubkina works intensively with great enthusiasm. It performs the portraits of his two longtime assistants, moulder G. I. Savino (1925) and Woodcarver I. Bednyakov (1926), paying tribute to the working man. Two characters, two attitude reports sculptor. In the first - optimism, a joyful acceptance of life in the second - thoughtfulness, depth of feeling.

In 1927, the wizard works on the most known works - "Birch" and a portrait of L. N. Tolstoy.

The fragile figure of a standing girl - a poetic symbol of youth, of awakening, of readiness for life. Fluttering in the wind dress fits a slender body, creating a multitude of pleats, forming a filled with the tremulous movement to the silhouette. The charm of this image lies in the lyrical statement of beauty, inspired outburst.

A figure of this portrait of L. N. Tolstoy this in a different tone. Golubkina always worried about the problem of creativity. She repeatedly appealed to the theme of man-Creator: Andrew White (1907), A. N. Tolstoy (1911), A. Remizov (1911). Portrait of the great genius strikes a Titanic force. The integrity of nature, strong-willed activity of the individual is perceived as the highest manifestation of the creative principle of man. The spiritual energy of image is transferred by power of expressive modeling.

"Birch" and a bust of L. N. Thick were the result of a creative journey of a great artist, what was Anna Semyonovna Golubkina.

Five years after her death in a former workshop in Levshinsky lane (now street Shchukin) has opened a Museum-workshop of A. S. Golubkina, where is kept a large part of the artistic heritage of sculpture.

Used materials articles of Tyshkevich in the book: 1989. A hundred anniversaries. Art calendar. Annual illustrated edition. M. 1988.

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