Italia • 1465−1525

Venetian painter of the Renaissance. Carpaccio was born in Venice CA. 1460; influenced by Giovanni and Gentile Bellini, and Antonello da Messina, Giorgione and Andrea Mantegna. He worked mainly in Venice. The most significant works of the artist — several cycles of paintings he created for Venetian religious brotherhoods, depicting scenes from the lives of their patron saints. These works give an idea about the ceremonial life of Venice of the time. From 1490 to 1495 Carpaccio wrote for the Scuola di Sant'orsola, a series of paintings illustrating the legend of St Ursula (now in the gallerie Dell'accademia in Venice).

According to the assumption So Pignatti (1958), the Carpaccio was the son of Piero Scarpazza, dealer in skins, who preferred to change his name to the name of Carpaccio. The artist takes an important place in the history of Venetian paintings of the XV century, Researchers still have not come to a unanimous opinion regarding the origins of his work. So, right after rejecting the hypothesis of training with Bastiani believe that he was influenced by Gentile Bellini and, in particular Antonello da Messina via Alvise Vivarini and Bartolomeo Montagna. Rare Venetian paintings, the taste and style of Carpaccio can also be attributed to the influence of Flemish art or art of other regions of Italy (Ferrara, Marche, Umbria, Latium, Tuscany), which, however, was to involve numerous trips the artist, though information about them we have not. The hypothesis of the journey Carpaccio to the East is even less justified. Love the Carpaccio to the themes, reminiscent of the Eastern world, due to his interest in woodcuts Ravija or observations of Venetian life of the time; however, that love meets the exceptional liveliness of imagination of the artist.

In the early period of creativity Carpaccio considers the painting "Christ among the apostles" (first collection Contini-Bonacossi), which is the interpretation of volumes reminiscent of Antonello, the altarpiece "Madonna with four saints," in which the influence of Montagna (Vicenza, Museo) and more strict on the style of the altarpiece from the Cathedral in Zara created in the last decade of the XV century.

In the cycle "History of St. Ursula", in 1490-1496 executed for the Scuola di Santa Ursula (which, as newly established, was located near the apse of the Basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice), a creative personality Carpaccio is already apparent in its entirety. Eight paintings dedicated to the life of the Holy (now Venice, Gal. Academy), but the scenes in non-chronological order. This cycle is largely inspired by the "Golden legend" of Jacques de Voragine: "the Arrival of the English ambassadors to the king of Brittany", "farewell to the ambassadors," "the Return of the ambassadors", "good-bye Ursula and Area with parents" (1495), "Meeting of the pilgrims with the Pope", "the Dream of St. Ursula", "Arrival in Cologne" (1490), "the Martyrdom of the pilgrims and the funeral of the Holy" (1493). The work took a little over five years and was completed in 1496 (exact date altarpieces with the image of "SV. Ursula in glory", usually dated 1491, is not known; probably it was written later). Narrative gift Carpaccio finds fertile ground: the artist meticulously examines every detail, every episode, he's driving event in the religious life to the story of human destiny, an entertaining and surprisingly relevant to the world of fantasy, joy and abundance. However, the consideration of creativity Carpaccio solely on the basis of his "illustrations" (though indisputable), as was customary before the advent of fundamental research, Fiocco, is tantamount to misunderstanding of the new meaning of his painting, based on a clear analysis of the form, the right knowledge of perspective, organizing the space, the richness and brightness of colors, which in some sense anticipates the tonal flavor of the XVI century Humanist culture of the time, so popular in Venice, is the basis of imaginative quest Carpaccio and explains the complexity of his poetic world.

That is easier seen if we compare his works with cold and more superficial narrative in the works of Gentile Bellini, Carpaccio rival in the cycle "the History of the cross" created for the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista. Beautiful picture "Miracle of the Holy cross" (1494, Venice, Gal. Academy), the action of which develops near the Rialto Bridge, is a valuable testimony of the life of Venice in the XV century, Other works of this period ("Blood of Christ", 1496, Ferrara Museum; "Holy interview", Avignon, the Petit Palais; the works in the Palace of the Doges, 1501 and 1507) died in a fire in 1577. In the Scuola di San Giorgio dei Schiavoni (1501-1507), the artist created a series of scenes from the life of St. Jerome ("SV. Jerome and lion in the monastery, the Funeral of St. Jerome, the Vision of St Augustine") of St. Tryphon and St. George ("the Battle of St. George with the dragon", "the Triumph of Saint George"). The eloquence of the narrator draws its force in the intersection of real and fabulous, and enriched by a more dynamic rhythms and a greater depth of human feelings. Complex composition represents a scene in a very broad perspective, and architecture, causing the Association with the East, reminiscent of the Lombard school.

Vision Carpaccio "through the magnifying glass" is equally attracts and the real world, and dark fantasy. A taste for the dark is clearly seen in the two masterpieces of the artist - "Reflections on the passion of Christ" (new York, Metropolitan Museum) and "the Lamentation over the dead Christ" (Berlindahlem Museum). Both paintings on the same theme - "the Lamentation", but Carpaccio is limited to the detail without exaggerating the clarity of the landscape and the sky and not accentuating the colorful and agile animal. The same detail and quickens the painting of Venetian idleness in the "Ladies on the balcony" (Venice, Museo Correr), admired by Ruskin; it also emphasizes the transparency of the air and the fragility of the garden which creates a lovely framing of the militant image of the "Knight in a landscape" (1510, Lugano, collection Thyssen-Bornemisza). Along with these works, dominated by imagination and freedom to experiment, Carpaccio creates a monumental composition "Bringing in the temple" for TS. San Giobbe (1510, Venice, Gal. Academy), which reflected a deep reflection on the plastic discoveries of Giovanni Bellini.

Creativity is the master, communicating the attitude of the XV century, seemed to be fading under the onslaught of "modernity", of the nascent fame of the Venetian Cinquecento. However, the participation workshop, which is already felt in the six scenes from the life of the virgin, painted for the Scuola degli Albanesi (now Bergamo, Accademia Carrara; Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera; Venice, Correr Museum and CA d 0ро), often heavier it works. Scenes from the life of St. Stephen, created for the Scuola di San Stefano (1511 - 1520, Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera; Paris, Louvre; Stuttgart, State. Gal.; Berlin-Dahlem, Museum), remain, especially in some episodes ("the Debate", 1514, Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera; "Preaching", Paris, Louvre), bright colors, the concreteness of space, clarity of forms and the transparency of air is all that distinguishes the best works of Carpaccio. However, the late artist's work, part of which was divided between his sons, Benedetto and Piero show about the decline of creativity Carpaccio, which has become more dry and academic (works from the Cathedral and the Museum of Kapodistrias).

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