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The focus of the exhibition is a portrait of Julius II, presumably by Giulio Romano, from a famous portrait of the pope painted by Raphael. The original was so successful that numerous replicas and copies were immediately made of it, including the Titian version now at the Pitti Palace in Florence, a version at the Galleria Borghese in Rome, and another at the Städel Museum in Frankfurt. The exhibition also includes two works by Tempesta from the Galleria degli Uffizi that testify to the popularity of Leonardo's theories and drawings of fighting knights. The most important testimony to this popularity is Gerard Edelink's engraving, based on Leonardo's caricature, for the Palazzo Vecchio.
Giuliano della Rovere (the future Pope Julius II) was a guest in October 1476 at the house of an Angiari condottiere named Mazzone di Gregorio. This man, a member of one of the city's most influential aristocratic families at the turn of the 15th century, even hosted the Duke of Urbino, Federico da Montefeltro, and members of his court. Thanks to Mazzone's friendship with the "warrior pope", he later earned the nickname "Bartolomeo Valentino Mazzoni d'Angiari" and was not only accepted by Giuliano into his circle of "friends, relatives and comrades", but was also "exempt from all duties and taxes on all his possessions: books, silverware and other objects for his personal and his family's use".