France • 1850−1924
Painting by Jean-françois raffaëlli (FR. Jean-François Raffaëlli), a Parisian from a wealthy Italian family, is registered by the Ministry of impressionism despite the fact that the Impressionists with him at the time fell out.

Twenty-year-old young man, equally passionate about writing, painting and theatre, chose still painting – he privileg her at 18, and here two years later one of his landscapes was accepted for exhibition in the Paris Salon. It was a picture, now unknown, but almost all the early work Rafaelli depict the capital's suburbs and their inhabitants busy with their everyday Affairs, people who do not just take into your head to pose for the artist and even more to order a portrait. However, even those marked with extraordinary talent, studies show the need for some cut – and in the fall of 1871 Rafaelli arrives for a three-month course of academic painting Jean-Leon Gerome, which he led at the Paris School of fine arts.

Newly elected member of the French Institute of arts and the Royal Academy of arts of great Britain, Chevalier Legion of honor Jerome was at the height of his fame and experience, and at the beginning of the decline in performance, but because he taught the course with a huge return – and raffaëlli with the same outcome studied required academic. Much much academically! It is, in fact, required, then from the French artists who wanted to pass a rigorous selection, the jury of the Salon – in fact, the only places where they could count on the regular attention of critics, gallery owners and buyers, and to see the skills of colleagues.

Three month courses after several years of private lessons and the rest Rafaelli serial autodidact, and if at the beginning he was a superb draftsman, then certainly they became over the years at the easel. Proved its worth as a painter, he began to be published as a graphic (90 etchings Rafaelli and Farina1880) and to receive orders as a book Illustrator (and in 1880 published a book the first President of the Academy Goncourt Huysmans with etchings Rafaelli, and in 1912 the artist ordered a graphic portrait of Huysmans books to Cokie "True Huysmans).

But what really inspired him to change the approach to painting is the work of the Impressionists.

In the next few years Rafaelli writes genre paintings – a series of scenes from the life of the Paris suburbs, which offers the Salon with the same persistence with which they rejected until 1876. It was impossible not to note that a realistic image together with the transfer experience of the feelings of the artist has achieved a clear and constant power (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

Among critics, praising the work of raffaëlli, were Edgar Degaswhich supported his participation in meetings and discussions of artists-"independent" in the cafe "New Athens", so he was gradually introduced to the philosophy and the technical side of impressionism. Two years – 1880 and 1881-m – Degas invited him to participate in the impressionist exhibitions, respectively the Fifth and Sixth, where he became a little to include pictures of realistic – in the end, they also wrote a lot in the open air. For the Fifth exhibition of Degas chose neither more nor less 37 works Rafaelli – as if he was a leading impressionist.

The first was indignant Claude Monetby refusing to exhibit with the company: since under the guise of impressionism, now on display the achievements of the "types and personalities", the same is not incorporated in all consecutive steps of the method, and even in such quantity – it is better to present ideological impressionist to withdraw from the Alliance. Monet is easy to understand. It was his commitment to all the features of impressionism had a huge impact on many – including Rafaelli. And it is Monet all more grieved, seeing how you address new colleagues with an integral artistic system - adopt only individual "chips", but every exploit to tamper with: "It was a chapel, but became a mediocre school whose doors are open to any incompetent". Sisley, Renoirand Cezannein order to maintain its position and technique, followed by Monet, but without them then present 18 artists. However, the following year – only 13, then only 9, the clan of the Impressionists irrevocably split, raffaëlli was unable to continue the journey with them, and even the last – Eighth exhibition (1886), which marked the end of impressionism (and the beginning of post-impressionism), are unable to restore their mutual affection.

Despite this, in the work of raffaëlli deeply resonated many of the tenets of the Impressionists. First of all, his paintings depict not so much how many to empathize, though the feelings of the painter, no doubt, sincere. Like any other impressionist, raffaëlli perfectly drawn with landscape as such – in any light (1, 2, 3, 4), including the urban landscape with a coherent perspective (1, 2, 3). And if at first the subject of his special interest and zeal were people he later seamless "stir" them with the landscape, being able, however, not to turn them in detail, and leave as the host of the nature of the picture (1, 2, 3, 4).

Rafaelli alien admiring the prettiness, however, his paintings radiate the charm, and the air in them, whether raw and sweet March, vicious and clean December, molten real Augustor riddled with smells and sounds may– at least take and breathe in. Rafaelli conveys a sense of space so that the viewer in this almost present itself, is inherent in the painting of all the Impressionists.

The technical side of the work Rafaelli is also not enough: he compares vzaimodopolnjajut pure colors to avoid black and draws them on the canvas thin strips (1, 2), including vibrating (see dress ladies in the foreground thispicture) to transfer the moment of the General movement. A notorious impressionistic "bleached palette" to write snowlight (1, 2), highlighted white the students of the first jazz ensembles, faded mural on a dilapidated or damp whitewash (1, 2), the leaves are adon the wall of a marriage Agency, Rafaelli achieved with the help of his own equipment, as we would say today – copyright. Oil paint he bred to a translucent state, and painted it as a watercolor, many layers on the canvas, and on the Board (which invented its own way to ground).

All that I learned Rafaelli Jerome, the Impressionists and by itself, already in 1889 at the Paris world exhibition has earned him a gold medal. And later according to one source, in the same year, and on the other – in 1906, after an impressive series of urban landscapes – the Legion of honor. Anyway, little by little Rafaelli increasingly set the sketchbook is not on the outskirts and in the heart of Paris. He wrote a lot – enough for regular exhibitions at the National society of fine arts and in the gallery Georges Petit.

Now his work is marked with easily recognizable "handwriting", and contribution to the art highly appreciate. But for a long time Rafaelli attributed to the number of artists of the "second tier" and not particularly delved into the kind of life he lived. Apparently, the person he was quite meticulous and honest, not to produce scandals and gossip, and respectable enough to paint portraits of prominent fellow writers and journalists, as if familiar with them short-circuited (1, 2). Most likely, he has not received any significant family inheritance, but not in poverty. In his youth, traveled a little, particularly in Italy and Egypt, but in later years has nowhere outside of France did not leave. Worked in a shop where, after sixty took up sculpture (originals, unfortunately, not preserved), he found pleasant to visit fashionable cafes, where creative people are keenly talk over a cider in large circles: this is evidenced portrait of raffaëlli. Definitely, he liked to meet anywhere mongrel dogs. And it seems that when he is with a sketchbook, revealing a large umbrella, standing at the crossroads and noticed it, remaining invisible to the other, from the side it seemed a natural and integral part of life in Paris.

Author: Maria Kropacheva
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